Disease Control

NOTE: For the disease control products listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (common name) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same active ingredient. Please see Table 25 and Fungicides and Bactericides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on products with the same active ingredients.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

PESTICIDE USE IN GREENHOUSES AND HIGH TUNNELS:

Pesticides can be used on high tunnel and greenhouse crops if: 1) the crop and pest/disease is on the label, AND the products specifically says it can be used in the greenhouse; OR 2) the crop and pest/disease is on the label, AND the product is ‘silent’ about use in the greenhouse in the greenhouse. Products that specifically prohibit greenhouse use cannot be used in greenhouses or high tunnels regardless of the crops or pests/diseases listed on the label.

Management practices that will reduce disease in greenhouses and high tunnels are: the use of resistant varieties, sanitation, fungicides and cultural practices that keep the humidity below 90%.  

See also: Table 19: Fungicides and Bactericides Labeled for Vegetable Bedding Plants (page 54).

Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis pv. michiganensis)

Initial symptoms are often a wilting and/or scorching of half of a leaf or one side of a plant. Necrotic leaf lesions up to 1/4" in diameter may appear on the upper leaf surface of mature leaves. Slightly raised white spots called “birds-eye spots” about 1/16" in diameter can appear on the fruit, usually when the green fruit in ½ to 2" in diameter. When these symptoms occur, remove the entire plant, including roots from the greenhouse. Wash hands with soap and water before handling healthy plants. There are few effective bactericides to control this disease. If extensive bacterial canker occurs in the greenhouse, steaming of the soil is advised. Pruning, harvesting and handling, especially when plants are wet, spreads the bacterium down the row. See discussion of bacterial canker on Tomato (Outdoor).

Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 (Serenade ASOOG): 2.0 to 4.0 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 44. See label for tank mix rates and restrictions for greenhouse use.

copper oxychloride plus copper hydroxide (Badge X2OG): 0.75 to 1.8 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M1.

Reynoutria sachalinensis extract (Regalia): 0.5-1.0% v/v solution; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group P5. Plant activator. Apply preventatively beginning when plants are young.

Gray Mold /Botrytis Blight (Botrytis cinerea)

White ring spots or “ghost spots” may appear on green fruit due to an earlier infection. Control over the environment is very important in controlling this disease. Keep humidity below 80% by heating and ventilating, especially at night. Avoid wetting the foliage during times when drying is slow. Practice strict sanitation, removing senescent tissues and infected crop debris. Pruning of lower leaves to clean-cut stubs aids in disease prevention by improving air circulation through the crop. Fungicide rotations and combinations are important because strains resistant to benlates, dichloran, captan, and iprodione have been reported.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (DoubleNickel LCOG): 0.25 to 3.0 lb/A; PHI 0d, 4 hr, Group 44.

Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 (CeaseOG): 3.0 to 6.0 qt/A; PHI 0d, 4 hr, Group 44.

copper soap (Camelot OOG): 0.5 to 2.0 gal/30 to 100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group M1.

copper sulfate basic (Cuprofix UltraOG): rates vary with products; REI 48h, Group M1. See labels.

copper sulfate pentahydrate (Phyton 35): 20.0 to 40.0 fl oz/100 gal water -  fresh market tomatoes; PHI 3d, REI 24h, Group M1. Do not exceed 80lb metallic copper annually. See label for restrictions.

cyprodinil plus fludioxonil (Switch 62.5 WG): 11.0 to 14.0 oz/A; PHI 10d, REI 12h, Groups 9 & 12.

fenhexamid (Decree 50 WDG): 1.0 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 17. Treated greenhouse tomatoes cannot be used for processing.

fludioxonil (Emblem): 5.5 to 7.0 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 12. Alternate with a different mode of action (FRAC group) after 2 applications of Emblem.

fluopyram plus pyrimethanil (Luna Tranquility): 11.2 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Groups 7 & 9. See label for specific instructions for greenhouse use.

penthiopyrad (Fontelis): 0.5 to 0.75 fl oz/ gal of spray; PHI 0d, REI 12, Group 7.

polyoxin D (Affirm WDG): 6.2 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 19.

potassium bicarbonate (MilStopOG): 1.25 to 5.0 lb/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 1h, Group NC.  Use solution within 12 hours of preparation. See label for small volume application rates.

pyrimethanil (Scala SC): 7.0 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 9. Use only in a tank mix with another effective fungicide recommended for Botrytis. Apply Scala SC only in well ventilated plastic tunnel houses or glass houses. Ventilate for at least 2 hours after application.

Reynoutria sachalinensis extract (RegaliaOG): 0.5 to 1.0% v/v solution; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group P5. Plant activator. Apply preventatively beginning when plants are young.

Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans)

Protectant fungicides are a key tool for management; however, many strains of P. infestans have become resistant to mefenoxam. When resistant strains are present, early blight fungicides will give as much protection against late blight as mefenoxam combinations. Avoid the use of overhead irrigation. Promptly incorporate old tomato crops after harvest in high tunnels; in the greenhouse remove all debris and clean greenhouse thoroughly after harvest. Eliminate cull piles and volunteer plants of both tomato and potato. Some resistant cultivars are available.

Bacillus pumilis Strain QST2808 (SonataOG): 2.0 to 4.0 qt/100 gal of spray mix; PHI 0d, REI 3h, Group NC. For disease suppression only (in greenhouse use).

Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 (CeaseOG): 3.0 to 6.0 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 44.

copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000): 0.5 to 1.5 Tbsp/1000 sq ft (1lb/A); PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M1. Do not apply in a spray solution having a pH less than 6.5.

copper oxychloride plus copper hydroxide (Badge X2OG): 0.75 to 1.8 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M1.

copper soap (Camelot OOG): 0.5 to 2.0 gal/30 to 100 gal water; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Group M1.

cyazofamid (Ranman 400SC): 2.1 to 2.75 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12, Group 21. See label for surfactant recommendations. Alternate applications with fungicides that have a different mode of action.

mancozeb (Dithane M45): 1.5 to 2.0 lb/A; PHI 5d, REI 24h, Group M3.

mancozeb plus zoxamide (Gavel 75DF): 1.5 to 2.0 lb/A; PHI 5d, REI 48, Groups M3 & 22.

mandipropamid (Micora): 5.5 to 8.0 fl oz/APHI 1d, REI 4h, Group 40. For tomato late blight only. Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. See label for surfactant recommendation.

mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top): 5.5 to 7.0 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12, Groups 3 & 40.

phosphorous acid (K-Phite 7LP): 3.0 to 5.0 qt/A via ground or aerial application; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 33.

polyoxin D (Affirm WDG): 6.2 fl oz./A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 19.

Leaf Mold (Fulvia fulva)

This disease occurs in both soil or hydroponic production and is most important in poorly ventilated plastic greenhouses. The pathogen produces large numbers of conidia on infected tissue; the disease can spread rapidly throughout a greenhouse by air currents, water, insects, and workers. Start with certified disease-free seed. Use resistant cultivars. Improve air circulation by adequate row/plant spacings and removal of lower leaves. Avoid the formation of water droplets on leaves by watering in the morning. Reduce relative humidity by a combination of heating and venting, especially at night. Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilization. Remove diseased leaves, place in plastic bag, and destroy. At the end of crop cycle, remove and destroy all plant residue and disinfest the entire greenhouse.

copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000): 0.5 to 1.5 Tbsp/1000 sq ft (1 lb/A); PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M1. Do not apply in a spray solution having a pH less than 6.5 or tank mix with Aliette.

copper oxychloride plus copper hydroxide (Badge X2OG): 0.75 to 1.8 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M1.

copper soap (Camelot OOG): 0.5 to 2.0 gal/30 to 100 gal water; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Group M1.

famoxadone plus cymoxanil (Tanos): 8.0 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Groups 11 & 27.

mancozeb (Dithane M45): 1.5 to 2.0 lb/A; PHI 5d, REI 24h, Group M3.

mancozeb plus zoxamide (Gavel 75DF): 1.5 to 2.0 lb/A; PHI 5d, REI 48h, Groups M3 & 22.

mandipropamid plus difenoconazole (Revus Top): 5.5 to 7.0 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Groups 3 & 40.

polyoxin D (OSO): 3.75 to 13.0 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 19.

Powdery Mildew (Oidium neolycopersici)

Powdery mildew of tomato is emerging as an important disease of greenhouse crops. This pathogen is favored by low light and cool temperatures. In contrast to other fungal plant pathogens, it does not require free water to germinate and cause disease. DeRuiter's Seeds has recently released the cultivar Grace which has resistance to powdery mildew.

Bacillus pumilis strain QST2808 (SonataOG): 2.0 to 4.0 qt/100 gal of spray mix; PHI 0d, REI 3h, Group NC. For disease suppression only (in greenhouse use).

Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 (CeaseOG): 3 to 6 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4 hr, Group 44.

cyprodinil plus fludioxonil (Switch 6.25 WG): 11.0 to 14.0 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Groups 9 & 12. Do not apply to small tomatoes such as cherry or grape in the greenhouse.

fludioxonil (Emblem): 5.5 to 7.0 oz/A. PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 12. Alternate with a different mode of action (FRAC group) after 2 applications of Emblem. 

fluopyram plus pyrimethanil (Luna Tranquility): 11.2 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Groups 7 & 9. See label for specific instructions for greenhouse use.

paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet-Oil): 3.0 to 6.0 qt/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group NC.  Spray for thorough coverage of upper leaf surface.

penthiopyrad (Fontelis): 0.5 to 0.75 fl oz/ gal of spray; PHI 0d, REI 12, Group 7.

phosphorous acid (K-Phite 7LP): 3.0 to 5.0 qt/A; via ground or aerial application PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 33.

polyoxin D (Affirm): 6.2 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 19.

potassium bicarbonate (MilStopOG): 2.5 to 5.0 lb/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 1h, Group NC.  Use solution within 12 hours of preparation.

potassium salts of fatty acids (M-PedeOG): 1.0% to 2.0% solution in tank mix; 1.5 to 2.0% v/v solution for stand alone use; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group NC. See label for precautions.

mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top): 5.5 to 7.0 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12, Groups 3 & 40.

sulfur (Microthiol DisperssOG): 5.0 to 20 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M2. Do not use within 2 weeks of an oil spray treatment. Crops grown in greenhouses may be much more sensitive to sulfur injury. Do not use if temperature will exceed 90ºF within 3 days following spraying.

triflumizole (Trionic 4 SC): 2 to 4 fl oz/100 gal.; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 3. Apply only as foliar spray. See label for surfactant recommendation.

Soil-borne Diseases

The fungi Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Phytophthora, Colletotrichum, Verticillium, Sclerotinia, and Fusarium, the bacterium that causes tomato canker, and root knot nematodes may become established in greenhouse soils or survive in tomato roots left from a previous crop. White rot (Sclerotinia) on stems occurs erratically during moist, cool periods in the spring. Distribution of diseased plants in a greenhouse is random. Plants of all ages are susceptible. The pathogen produces hardened black fungal survival structures called sclerotia that can survive several years in the soil. Cut the plant off at the base and remove from the greenhouse. Depending on which pathogen is present, rotation or the use of resistant varieties in addition to the use of grafted plants with vigorous rootstocks may be viable alternatives. Otherwise, steam or chemical treatment of the soil is necessary. It should be considered, however, that treatment of soil may not entirely eliminate the pathogens and, in the case of Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Fusarium, the pathogens may rapidly recolonize the soil. There is no effective chemical treatment for the wilt and decline diseases caused by Verticillium and Fusarium. The most effective management techniques are resistant cultivars and sanitation, including soil pasteurization. (NOTE: the current Bayer label for Coniothyrium minitans (Contans) does not include tomato).

Bacillus subtilis v. amyloliquefaciens FZB24 (Taegro 2.0OG): 2.6 to 5.2 oz/A; REI 24h, Group NC. In greenhouse production, apply Taegro to newly sown transplants.

Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 (Serenade ASOOG): 2.0 to 4.0 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 44. See label for tank mix rates and restrictions for greenhouse use.

cyazofamid (Ranman): Pythium ONLY. 3 fl oz/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 21. Use as a soil drench. For tomato transplants only.

Gliocladium catenulatum strain J1446 (P-VentOG): See label for rates and application instructions; REI 4h, Group NC.

mancozeb (Dithane M45): 8 oz/100 lb seed; REI 24h, Group M3.

PCNB (Terraclor 400): 6.0 to 12.0 fl oz/100 gal water (800 sq ft); REI 12h, Group 14. Use as soil drench in greenhouse for seedlings grown in containers or beds prior to transplant.

phosphorous acid (K-Phite 7LP): see label for rates and application methods; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 33.

propamocarb HCl (Previcur Flex): Pythium and Phytophthora species ONLY. See label for rates; REI 12h, Group 28. Prevent intense sunlight after application by applying Previcur Flex in the evening. Do not apply to dry rockwool or other dry growing media without first pre-wetting with water.

Streptomyces griseoviridis (MycoStopOG): 0.08 oz/lb seed for seed treatment. 1 to 2 g/cubic yd for soil incorporation. 1.0 to 2.0 g/100 ft2 for soil Drench; REI 4h, Group NC. See label for soil application methods and rates.

Streptomyces lydicus (ActinovateOG): 3.0 to 12.0 oz/A applied as soil drench; REI 1h, Group NC.

Trichoderma asperellum plus T. gamsii (Bio-tam 2.0OG): See label for use and rates; REI 1h, Group NC.

Trichoderma species (RootShieldOG, Rootshield PlusOG): See labels for specific instructions and rates; REI 0h, Group N/A.

Viruses

See Tomato (Outdoor) for a discussion on viruses.