Insect Control

NOTES:  For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 27 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.

The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.

The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

Aphids, Lettuce (Nasonovia ribisnigri)

The most common aphid present on lettuce is the lettuce aphid, of European origin, which overwinters on Ribes species including gooseberries and currants. Winged aphids that colonize lettuce are dark, while wingless females that reproduce on lettuce are pale yellow to green, sometimes reddish, with darker patches. Unlike other aphid species, they feed in the interior of the head, making them difficult to detect and to reach with insecticides. Scout plants at the seedling stage and before heads form. Check field margins, where infestations begin. If one planting becomes infested, use tillage to incorporate crop residue and prevent spread to later succession plantings. Potato aphid, green peach aphid or lettuce root aphid may also occur. See Potato for more information on potato aphid, and Pepper for more information on green peach aphid.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 21d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Green Peach Aphid. For head lettuce (crisphead type) only.

acetamiprid (Assail 30SG): 2 to 4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A.

afidopyropen (Versys): 1.5 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 9D.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 3.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO): 8 to 32 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 22. Treat when populations are low and thoroughly cover foliage. Takes 7 to 10 days after the first spray to see control. Repeat applications may be needed.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Head lettuce only.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 13.5 to 20.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28. Green peach aphid only.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark): 6.75 to 13.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting. For control of green peach and suppression of potato aphid only.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 oz/A; PHI 14d for escarole types and leaf lettuce, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not for head lettuce.

dinotefuran (Safari 20SG): 0.16 to 0.25 oz/1,000 sq ft or 3.5 to 5.5 oz/100 gal or 7 to 11 oz/A; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4. Transplants only while in greenhouse. Not for field use.

dinotefuran (Venom): 1 to 3 oz/A foliar or 5 to 7.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Soil application may be as a band during bedding, in-furrow at seeding, transplant or post-seeding drench, sidedress, or through drip. For green peach and potato aphid only.

flonicamid (Beleaf 50SG): 2 to 2.8 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12, Bee: L, Group 9C.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A for foliar application, 21 to 28 oz/A for soil application; PHI 1d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Suppression only.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.3 oz/A foliar, 4.4 to 10.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. For foliar applications, apply only to fully leafed-up canopies.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 2.5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. May need to make repeated applications. For enhanced and residual control, apply with a companion labeled insecticide; for green peach aphid, must use companion insecticide.

malathion (Malathion 57 EC): 1.5 to 2 pt/A endive, 2 pt/A lettuce; PHI 7d for endive, PHI 14d for lettuce, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not for escarole.

methomyl (Lannate LV*): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 10d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For lettuce only.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed. Lettuce only.

pymetrozine (Fulfill): 2.75 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 9B. Translaminar. Apply when aphids first appear, before populations build up.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 100 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils. Lettuce only.

spirotetramat (Movento): 4 to 5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 24h, Bee: M, Group 23. Must be tank-mixed with a spray adjuvant with spreading and penetrating properties to maximize leaf uptake and sytemicity; don't use sticker adjuvants. Controls immature stages; may also reduce adult fertility.

sulfoxaflor (Closer SC): 1.5 to 2 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4C.

thiamethoxam (Actara): 1.5 to 3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

thiamethoxam (Platinum): 5 to 11 oz/A; PHI 30d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic insecticide used as an in-furrow, banded, drench, or drip irrigation application to the seed/seedling root zone during or after planting/transplanting operations.

Aster Leafhopper (Macrosteles quadralineatis)

See Carrot and Parsnip section for more information on aster leafhopper and the yellows mycoplasm that it vectors.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 21d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Aster leafhopper. For head lettuce (crisphead type) only.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 0.8 to 1.6 oz/A for potato leafhopper; 2.4 to 3.2 for other leafhoppers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Head lettuce only.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 14 to 17 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Groups 16 & 28.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1 qt/A; PHI 14d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 oz/A; PHI 14d for escarole types and leaf lettuce, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not for head lettuce.

dinotefuran (Venom): 1 to 3 oz/A foliar or 5 to 7.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Soil application may be as a band during bedding, in-furrow at seeding, transplant or post-seeding drench, sidedress, or through drip.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.3 oz/A foliar, 4.4 to 10.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. For foliar applications, apply only to fully leafed-up canopies.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Lettuce only.

malathion (Malathion 57 EC): 2 pt/A; PHI 14d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. For lettuce only. 

methomyl (Lannate LV*): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 10d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For aster leafhopper on lettuce only.

permethrin (Pounce 25WP*): 3.2 to 12.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

thiamethoxam (Actara): 1.5 to 3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

thiamethoxam (Platinum): 5 to 11 oz/A; PHI 30d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic insecticide used as an in-furrow, banded, drench, or drip irrigation application to the seed/seedling root zone during or after planting/transplanting operations.

tolfenpyrad (Torac): 14 to 21 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 21A.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 2.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni)

An occasional pest of lettuce, especially in late season when migratory flights have brought high numbers of looper moths into New England. See Cabbage section for more information on cabbage looper.

acephate (Orthene 97): 1 lb/A; PHI 21d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. For head lettuce (crisphead type) only.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 3.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azazadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group UN.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 1.6 to 2.4 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Head lettuce only.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 12 to 17 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Groups 16 & 28.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 3.5 to 7.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28. May be applied to soil at planting, through drip chemigation and as a foliar spray. For soil applications, must be applied uniformly in the root zone.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 10 to 17 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark): 6.75 to 13.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting.

cyclaniliprole (Harvanta): 10.9 to 16.4 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28.

emamectin benzoate (Proclaim*): 3.2 to 4.8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 6. Apply when larvae are first observed.

flubendiamide (Belt SC): 1.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 28. Active via ingestion.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 0.77 to 1.28 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

indoxacarb (Avaunt): 2.5 to 3.5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 22.

methomyl (Lannate LV*): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 10d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For lettuce only.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use lower rates when plants are small or infestations are light.

permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 3.2 to 12.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for escarole.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed. Lettuce only.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 50 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils. Lettuce only.

spinetoram (Radiant SC): 5 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 3 to 6 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

tebufenozide (Confirm 2F): 6 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use low rate for early season applications to young, small plants. Use of an adjuvant is recommended.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Cutworms

Caterpillars hide under the soil surface adjacent to the plant stem during the day and feed on stems after dark. For best results, make application between midnight and dawn while cutworms are feeding aboveground. Synthetic pyrethroids (Group 3A) may work best during cool spring weather. See cutworms in the Pepper and Tomato (Outdoor) sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee:H, Group 3A.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythoid* XL): 0.8 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Head lettuce only.p

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 12 to 17 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Groups 16 & 28.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 0.77 to 1.28 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Lettuce only.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use lower rates when plants are small or infestations are light.

permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 6.4 to 12.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

spinosad (SeduceOG): 20 to 44 lb/A or 0.5 to1 lb/1000 sq ft.; PHI 1d, REI 4 h, Bee: M, Group 5. Spread bait on soil around plants.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 2.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)

The tarnished plant bug (TPB) is a small (1/4”) bronze-colored insect with a triangular marking on its back. TPB adults are highly mobile. The immature, or nymph stage is smaller and bright green, resembling an aphid, but much more active. Adults overwinter in weeds and crop residue and become active in early spring, laying eggs in plant tissue. Young tissue such as flower buds, immature fruit, and emerging leaves are preferred feeding sites compared to mature fruit, stems or leaves. There are 2 to 3 generations per year. There are both native and imported predators and parasites of TPB. The sucking injury from adults and nymphs can cause dieback of the growing tip, death and drop of buds or flowers, brown scars on leaf ribs, and distorted or stunted growth of leaves, pods, seeds or fruit.   TPB injury in lettuce includes piercing of leaf ribs, which leaves a brown scar; this is especially noticeable on Romaine.  The range of vegetable and fruit crops affected by TPB is great; field crops such as alfalfa and many weeds are also favored hosts. In this guide, celery, lettuce, bean and eggplant list TPB as a pest, but these are not the only crops that could be affected. In vegetables, TPB is generally not a seriously damaging pest unless the vegetation surrounding crop fields is serving as a source of large populations, and the crop offers more succulent feeding than the surrounding fields.  Avoid planting lettuce near abandoned, weedy fields or alfalfa crops.  While alfalfa may serve as a trap crop, mowing alfalfa may cause TPB to leave mowed fields for nearby vegetables causing TPB populations to increase. In strawberries, white sticky traps are used to detect adults and shaking flower trusses is used to detect nymphs; check small fruit alerts for TPB spring activity. Scout plants for signs of injury and for TPB adults or nymphs, especially in favorite, hidden feeding sites. Sweep nets can be used in crops that are not damaged by sweeping. Insecticides are warranted if damage is increasing and the crop stage is such that significant crop injury can be prevented.

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 2.4 to 3.2 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 2 qt/A; PHI 14d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

flonicamid (Beleaf 50SG): 2 to 2.8 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12, Bee: L, Group 9C.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For lettuce only.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

Slugs

Damage appears as shredded foliage. Look for silvery slime trails on leaves or turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs during daylight hours. Grow plants away from moist, shaded habitats, use clean cultivation, control weeds, hand pick/crush slugs or scatter baits on the ground near infested plants. See the Cabbage section for more information on slugs.

iron phosphate (Sluggo: Snail and Slug BaitOG): 20 to 44 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 0h, Bee: L, Group 9B. Apply around perimeter, scatter around base of plants, or band down rows. Apply to moist soil in the evening.

metaldehyde (Deadline Bullets): 20 to 40 lb/A; REI 12h, Bee: L. Soil surface treatment broadcast pre-planting, or band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Apply to moist soil in the evening. Do not apply directly to or contaminate edible portions of plants.