Insect Control

NOTES:  For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 26 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.

The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.

The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

A spreader-sticker should be used with insecticides on these crops as it will help provide better coverage and more insecticide persistence.

Cabbage Aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)

Only crops and weeds in the brassica family are suitable hosts for cabbage aphid (CA).  Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts are most severely affected, but other crops may become infested. Aphids tend to be more of a problem in fall plantings. Adults, both winged and wingless, and nymphs are grayish green with a dark head and short, dark cornicles, but appear more grayish white because the body is covered with a fine, white, powdery secretion. In fall, eggs are laid on the underside of leaves of the same crops or weeds that were fed on during the summer, and survive the winter on brassica host plants. This differs from the life cycle of many aphid pests of vegetables, where eggs are laid and overwinter on alternate hosts outside the field. Eggs typically hatch in April. Nymphs feed and develop into reproductive females who produce live young without mating. Winged adults disperse with wind and infest new crops. There are multiple summer generations and potential for huge population growth, especially where long-season crops are infested early. CA prefers to feed on young leaves, flower buds or seed stalks in the upper part of the plant and also feeds in developing Brussels sprout buds. Dense colonies may develop. Feeding injury includes wrinkled and downward-curling leaves, yellow leaves, reduced growth, contamination with aphid honeydew, and contamination of the marketable parts of the plant with aphids. CA can also transmit cauliflower mosaic and cabbage ring spot virus, among other viruses; transmission is non-persistent, with virus particles passed to new plants by probing. Natural enemies can suppress cabbage aphid populations, but may not be able to prevent high densities that may occur in cool fall weather. Cultural controls include soil incorporation of crop residues immediately after harvest or, for overwintering brassicas, before eggs hatch in spring. Control brassica weeds in or near fields. Check transplants to be sure they are clean. Use reflective mulch to repel aphids. Use selective products when controlling other pests to conserve beneficials. If CA is a consistent problem, systemic insecticides used at planting or sidedress may eliminate early infestations. Scout weekly to determine % infested plants, starting before harvested portions of the plant form. Treat if >10% of the plants are infested with aphids, especially after heads or sprouts begin to form. Or select 10 leaves at 10 sites for 100 leaves per field, and treat if >20% have aphids. Coverage of all leaf surfaces, buds and new growth is key. Waiting until there are heavy outbreaks or until just before harvest makes it hard to prevent loss of marketable yield.

Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) can also infest brassicas.  For more information, see green peach aphid in the Pepper section

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 14d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. For green peach aphid. For Brussels sprouts and cauliflower only.

acetamiprid (Assail 30SG): 2 to 4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

afidopyropen (Versys): 1.5 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12 h, Bee: L, Group 9D.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO): 8 to 32 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 22. Treat when populations are low and thoroughly cover foliage. Takes 7 to 10 days after the first spray to see control. Repeat applications may be needed.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media (Venerate XCOG): 1 to 8 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M. Suppression only.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 13.5 to 20.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark):  6.75 to 13.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A for broccoli and cauliflower, 8 oz/A for kale and mustard, 16 oz/A Brussels sprouts; PHI 7d broccoli and cauliflower, 14d kale and mustard , 0d Brussels sprouts, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Broccoli, cauliflower, kale, mustard, Brussels sprouts only.

dinotefuran (Safari 20SG): 0.16 to 0.32 oz/1,000 sq ft; 3.5 to 7 oz/100 gal; 7 to 14 oz/A; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kohlrabi transplants only while in greenhouse. Not for field use.

dinotefuran (Venom): 1 to 4 oz/A for foliar applications or 5 to 7.5 oz/A for soil applications to head and stem Brassicas. 2 to 3 oz/A for foliar application only to leafy Brassicas; PHI 1d foliar, 2PHI 1d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Soil application may be as a band during bedding, in-furrow at seeding, transplant or post-seeding drench, sidedress or through drip. For head and stem Brassicas only. 

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.66 to 16 oz/A Danitol 2.4EC + 3-4 oz/A Belay. Do not apply during bloom or if bees are actively foraging. For head and stem brassicas only; PHI 21d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3.

flonicamid (Beleaf 50SG): 2 to 2.8 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 9C.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 12 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 4D.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 4.4 to 10.5 oz/A soil; 1.3 oz/A foliar; PHI 21d soil, 7d foliar, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 2.5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. May need to make repeated applications. For enhanced and residual control, apply with companion labeled aphicide.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For head and stem Brassicas only. Suppression only.

malathion (Malathion 57 EC): 1 to 2 pt/A for broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, kohlrabi; 1 to 1.6 pt/A for kale and mustard greens; 1.5 to 1.6 pt/A for collards; PHI 2d broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower; 7d cabbage, kale, collards, kohlrabi, mustard greens, REI 48h broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower; 24h kohlrabi; 12h collards, kale, mustard greens, Bee: H, Group 1B.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pymetrozine (Fulfill): 2.75 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 9A. Selective control of aphids including cabbage aphid. Translaminar.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 100 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

spirotetramat (Movento): 4 to 5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: M, Group 23. Must be tank-mixed with a spray adjuvant with spreading and penetrating properties to maximize leaf uptake and sytemicity; don't use sticker adjuvants. Controls immature stages; may also reduce adult fertility.

sulfoxaflor (Closer SC): 1.5 to 2 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4C.

thiamethoxam (Actara): 1.5 to 3 oz/A; PHI 7d leafy Brassica greens, 0d head and stem brassicas, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

thiamethoxam (Platinum): 5 to 11 oz/A; PHI 30d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic insecticide used as an in-furrow, banded, drench, or drip irrigation application to the seed/seedling root zone during or after planting/transplanting operations.

tolfenpyrad (Torac): 17 to 21 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12 h, Bee: H, Group 21A.

Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni), Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) and Imported Cabbageworm (Pieris rapae)

Diamondback moth (DBM) and imported cabbageworm (ICW) are pests throughout the growing season, while cabbage looper (CL) generally does not become a pest until mid- to late-season.

Imported cabbageworm (ICW) is the offspring of the cabbage butterfly, a daytime flyer often visible in brassica fields. Wings are white, and the forewing has a dark border and 1 to 2 round black spots. Eggs, laid singly on leaves, are about 0.125" in length, light green or yellow, and slightly elongated, standing upright. Imported cabbageworm caterpillars are gray-green with a thin yellow line down the back, slightly fuzzy, reach 1.25" in length, and are sluggish when touched. Feeding and resting occur on the underside of leaves, and larvae feed more heavily in the center or head of cabbage or broccoli. Damage includes round or ragged feeding holes and deposits of wet, green or brownish frass. The overwintering stage is the chrysalis (pupa), which is green or brown, smooth, with 3 pointed ridges on its back. There are 3 to 4 generations per year with adults first appearing in May.

Cabbage looper (CL) does not overwinter in New England but arrives in migratory flights from farther south. Generally, numbers are not significant until late July or August. Adult moths are mottled gray-brown, 0.75" long, with a distinct, round, silver-white mark on the wing. Bucket-type pheromone traps can be used to monitor moth flight. Eggs are globe-shaped, light green or yellow, and laid underneath the foliage. Caterpillars are light green, with wavy, white or light yellow lines down the back and sides, reaching 1.5" to 2" when full grown. Cabbage loopers of any size will raise the middle of their body in a characteristic "loop" shape. Feeding damage from older larvae consists of ragged, large holes in foliage, on both frame leaves and heads.

Diamondback moth (DBM) adults are small (<0.5"), light brown with a yellow diamond-shaped marking, and rest with their wings folded together like a tent. Adult moths are active at dusk and during the night. Caterpillars reach 3/4" in length, are light green, and are segmented and pointed at both ends. When disturbed they wiggle vigorously and may drop off the plant on a string of silk. Feeding causes small, round holes and tends to be spread across the foliage rather than concentrated in the head.

Incorporate crop residues shortly after harvest to reduce movement to successive plantings and reduce overwintering populations. Populations are suppressed by a wide range of natural enemies. Parasitic wasps that attack caterpillars include Cotesia rubecula on ICW and Diadegma insulare on DBM; their small white cocoons may be found on leaves.

Scout fields by checking leaves (top and bottom) on 25 plants across the field. In the Northeast, there is generally no need to treat young plants unless weather conditions delay plant development and at least 35% of them are infested with any of these pests. Treat plants between the start of heading and harvest if 20% or more of the plants are infested. The most critical time to scout and apply chemical controls is just prior to head formation. Use a 10% to 15% threshold throughout the season for kale, collards, mustard, and other leafy greens.

Do not use less than 50 gal spray material/A; higher volumes provide better coverage. Better coverage of lower leaf surfaces can be achieved by using drop nozzles. Use a spreader-sticker. Use selective materials to spare beneficials that help control aphids and caterpillars. DBM has become resistant to many synthetic and microbial insecticides.  Even if you are getting excellent control of this pest with the materials presently being used, you should alternate between effective materials to retard development of resistance. Newer materials and the aizawai strain of Bacillus thuringiensis will usually provide better control of resistant DBM than older products. Use transplants grown in New England to avoid importing DBM that have already developed resistance to one or more classes of insecticides.

acephate (Orthene 97): 1 lb/A; PHI 14d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. For Brussels sprouts and cauliflower only. DBM has developed resistance in some areas. 

acetamiprid (Assail 30SG): 4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. For suppression of DBM only.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.2 to 3.8 oz/A DBM and ICW, 3.2 to 3.8 oz/A looper; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

azadirachtin & pyrethrins (AzeraOG): 16 to 56 oz/A foliar, drench, and greenhouse applications; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Groups un & 3A.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. Particularly effective against DBM. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A DBM & ICW, 0.5 to 1 lb/A looper; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. Particularly effective against DBM. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO): 16 to 32 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 22. Use high rate for CL. May be used alone or tank mixed with Bacillus thuringiensis products. Takes 7 to 10 days after application to see control.

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 1.6 to 2.4 oz/A for CL and ICW, 2.4 to 3.2 oz/A for DBM; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 10 to 20 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee:L, Groups 16 & 28.

Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media (Venerate XCOG): 1 to 8 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group un.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 2 qt/A; PHI 3d broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kohlrabi, 14d Chinese cabbage, collards, kale and mustard greens, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. DBM and ICW only.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 3.5 to 7.5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28. May be applied to soil at planting, through chemigation and as a foliar spray. Do not apply more than twice to any generation of diamond back moth.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

cryolite (Prokil Cryolite): 8 to 16 lb/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group un.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 10 to 17 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark):  6.75 to 13.5 oz/A for loopers, 5 to 10 oz/A for DBM and ICW; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting.

cyclaniliprole (Harvanta): 10.9 to 16.4 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4 h, Bee: H, Group 28.

emamectin benzoate (Proclaim*): 2.4 to 4.8 oz/A for DBM and ICW, 3.2 to 4.8 for CL; PHI 7d head and stem, 14d leafy brassicas, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 6. Rotate to another product after 2 applications.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A for most species, 2.9 to 5.8 oz/A for ICW on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and Chinese cabbage; PHI 3d broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, 7d collards and mustard greens, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Use high rate for mustard greens. Not for DBM. On kohlrabi, not for ICW.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.66 to 16 oz/A. For CL and ICW on head and stem brassicas only. May be combined with DiPel DF to control ICW and CL on head and stem brassicas only - see label for rates; PHI 7d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3

flubendiamide (Belt SC): 2.0 to 2.4 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 28.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 0.77 to 1.28 oz/A for looper and ICW, 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A DBM; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3AHead and stem Brassicas only.

indoxacarb (Avaunt): 2.5 to 3.5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 22. Use high rate for DBM. Add a wetting agent to improve spray coverage.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.6 oz/A for CL and ICW, 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A for DBM; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For head and stem Brassicas.

malathion (Malathion 57 EC): 1 to 2 pt/A for broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, kohlrabi, 1 to 1.6 pt/A for kale and mustard greens; 1.6 pt/A for collards; PHI 2d broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, 7d cabbage, kale, collards, kohlrabi, mustard greens, REI 48h broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower; 24h kohlrabi; 12h collards, kale, mustard greens, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not for DBM except on collards.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A for CL and DBM, 0.75 to 3 pt/A for ICW on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, 1.5 to 3 pt/A for ICW on Brussels sprouts, collards, kale, mustard greens; PHI 1d cabbage, 3d broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, 10d Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard greens, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. Not for ICW or DBM on Chinese cabbage.

novaluron (Rimon 0.83EC): 6 to 12 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 16B. Not labeled for collards, kale.

permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 3.2 to 6.4 oz/A for Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cavalo broccolo and kohlrabi, 3.2 to 12.8 oz/A for broccoli, Chinese broccoli, cabbage and Chinese cabbage; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for other Brassica crops.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 8 oz/A for ICW and CL; 12 to 16 oz/A for DBM; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Suppression only for DBM.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 50 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils

spinetoram (Radiant SC): 5 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Efficacy improves with the addition of an adjuvant.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 3 to 6 oz/A looper & ICW, 1.5 to 4 oz/A DBM; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. See label for resistance management restrictions for DBM.

tebufenozide (Confirm 2F): 6 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use low rate for early season applications to young, small plants. Use of an adjuvant is recommended. Not for DBM.

tolfenpyrad (Torac): 17 to 21 fl oz/A; PHI 1 d, REI 12 h, Bee: H, Group 21A.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 2.4 to 4.3 oz/A for DBM, ICW, 3.4 to 4.3 for CL; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum)

Cabbage root maggot is a pest of all types of brassicas, but is particularly damaging in cabbage, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, radish, turnips, and rutabaga. The first flight in April and May damages early spring brassicas, and the third flight from mid-August into September primarily injures fall root crops. Flies overwinter as pupae near roots of fall brassica crops and weeds. Adult flies become active at about 288 growing degrees days (GDD, base temperature 40°F), which occurs 1 to 2 weeks after forsythia starts to bloom and when yellow rocket (winter cress, Barbarea vulgaris) blooms. Fifty percent emergence (peak flight) occurs at about 450 GDD (base 40°F). Adult flies are delicate, hump-backed, gray-brown flies with long legs, about 5 to 7 mm long. Small (1.1mm), white, bullet-shaped eggs are laid singly or in clumps in the top 1-3 inches of soil, near the stem. Wet areas with heavy or rich soil are attractive for egg-laying. Maggots are white with black mouth hooks, feed on roots, and grow to 8 mm. The oval, brown pupae are found close to the roots. There are 2 to 3 generations per year in New England. Root damage causes plants to wilt, turn yellow or purple, become stunted or delayed, or die. Early infestation and large pest populations increase plant losses. Eggs are killed by exposure to soil temperatures above 95°F for several days in a row, especially in dry soil. Often these conditions occur in late May or early June.

Incorporate and disk brassica crop residues after harvest to expose and kill pupae, especially in the fall. Rotate spring crops to fields that were not planted with brassicas the previous fall. Avoid spring applications of manure or compost, which increase attractiveness of the field for egg-laying.  Avoid wet fields or sections of the field. Protect spring crops with spunbonded row covers, and use covers only on rotated fields, or else the flies will emerge under the covers.  Place covers over the crop at the time of seeding or transplanting and seal the edges with soil. Time your seeding or transplanting to avoid exposing young plants to peak flight periods; delay spring crops until after peak flight and when soils warm up. 

Most labeled materials are labeled only for use pre-plant, at the time of planting or seeding—either in the seed furrow or as a transplant drench—or immediately after setting transplants.Use pre- or at-plant treatments only if damaging populations are expected, such as in fields with high organic matter or a history of infestations. Scout transplant trays before setting out plants in the field. Treat transplants if eggs are found, either in the tray, in transplant water, or as a post-plant drench, as labels allow. A pencil is a good tool to gently stir the soil at the base of the plant and look for eggs. Yellow sticky cards placed near brassicas capture adult flies, and along with GDD, are a good indicator of the onset of adult flight. Scout for eggs—in transplant trays and the field—as soon as flies are active. In the field, finding an average of 1egg per plant can indicate a damaging population. Again, control options are limited once plants are in the field, but scouting to understand infestation levels can help inform management decisions in future plantings. Resistance to organophosphate (group 1B) insecticides has been documented; rotate among chemical classes where possible to retard development of resistance. 

bifenthrin (Capture LFR): 3.4 to 6.8 oz/A; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3. Apply as a 5 to 7-inch T-band over the open seed furrow, or in-furrow with the seed.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 3.5 to 7.5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28. May only be applied as transplant water treatment to soil at planting. For suppression only.

chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E): Pre-plant: 4.5 pint/A (4 pint/A for cauliflower); At- or post-plant: 1.6 to 2.75 oz/1000 row ft (1.6 to 2.4 oz/1000 row ft for cauliflower); PHI 30d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Apply pre-plant as a broadcast spray and incorporate same day into top 2" to 4" of soil, or apply to direct seeded crops as a 4" band over the row at planting time. May also be applied to transplanted crops as spray directed to base of plants immediately after setting. Do not add adjuvants or apply as a foliar spray.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark):  10 to 13.5  oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting.

diazinon (Diazinon* AG500): Pre-plant incorporation applications: 2 to 3 qt/A; transplant water drench applications: 4 to 8 oz/50 gal water; PHI 7d, REI 4 days, Bee: H, Group 1B. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower only. Transplant water treatments may result in stand reduction due to plant stress at time of transplanting.

spinetoram (Radiant SC): 5 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. For direct seeded crops, apply directly to base of plants and adjacent soil when crop has developed to the two true leaf stage, and make second application 2-3 weeks later. For transplanted crops, apply immediately after transplanting and make second application 2-3 weeks later. A third application may be needed under high cabbage root maggot pest pressure conditions, such as when there is a large amount of debris from a previous brassica crop or when adjacent brassica fields are being harvested. For optimum control, direct the spray in a narrow band at the base of the plants. Do not make more than three applications of Group 5 insecticides (spinetoram and spinosad) per crop cycle for cabbgage root maggot suppression. For brassica leafy vegetables only (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale). Not for brassica roots (e.g., radish, turnip). 

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 5 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. For direct seeded crops, apply directly to base of plants and adjacent soil when crop has developed to the two true leaf stage, and make second application 2-3 weeks later. For transplanted crops, apply immediately after transplanting and make second application 2-3 weeks later. A third application may be needed under high cabbage root maggot pest pressure conditions, such as when there is a large amount of debris from a previous brassica crop or when adjacent brassica fields are being harvested. For optimum control, direct the spray in a narrow band at the base of the plants. Do not make more than three applications of Group 5 insecticides (spinetoram and spinosad) per crop cycle for cabbgage root maggot suppression. For brassica leafy vegetables only (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale). Not for brassica roots (e.g., radish, turnip). 

tolfenpyrad (Torac): 21 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 21A.

Cabbage Whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella)

An emerging pest in the Northeast United States, cabbage whitefly originates from Europe and is a pest in many areas of the world. Adults are small (1.5 mm) with white wings, and can be distinguished from greenhouse and sweet potato whitefly by two gray blotches on each forewing. Eggs are laid in a half-moon or circular pattern on the undersides of leaves. Immature stages are flat and scale-like. Both adults and nymphs feed on plant sap. Large populations will reduce plant vigor and quality, and adults and nymphs deposit honeydew on leaf surfaces on which sooty mold grows. Cabbage whitefly feeds and reproduces on brassicas, as well as other crops and weeds such as alfalfa, fava bean and dandelion. Preferred hosts are kale and Brussels sprouts.  

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 3.2 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For suppression of adults only.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 14 to 20 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Groups 16 & 28.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 13.5 to 20.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark): 6.75 to 13.5 oz/A at planting, 6.75 to 10 oz/A chemigation; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting, drip chemigation, or soil injection. Allow 1-3 days for material to be translocated into aerial portions of the plant. When populations are high, use a foliar control during this period.

dinotefuran (Venom): 1 to 4 oz/A foliar or 5 to 7.5 oz/A soil for heading brassicas, 2 to 3 oz/acre leafy; PHI 1d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Soil application may be as a band during bedding, in-furrow at seeding, transplant or post-seeding drench, sidedress or through drip.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10 2/3 to 16 oz/A Danitol 2.4EC + 3-4 oz/A Belay; PHI 21d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3. Do not apply during bloom or if bees are actively foraging. Head and stem brassicas only.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 10.5 to 14 oz/A foliar, 21 to 28 oz/A soil; PHI 1d foliar, 45d soil, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 5d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Suppression only.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 4.4 to 10.5 oz/A soil, 1.3 oz/A foliar, 0.44 oz/10,000 plants on seedling transplants in greenhouse; PHI 21d soil, PHI 0d foliar, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Planthouse applications only provide short-term protection; an additional field application must be made within 2 weeks following transplanting to provide continuous protection.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 2.5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. May need to make repeated applications. For enhanced and residual control, apply with a companion labeled insecticide.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.3 to 1.9 oz/A; PHI 5d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Suppression only. Head and stem brassicas only.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pymetrozine (Fulfill): 2.75 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 9A. Suppression only. Apply when whiteflies first appear.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee:M, Group 3A.

pyriproxyfen (Knack): 8 to 10 fl oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12 h, Bee: L, Group 7C. Insect growth regulator, only effective on immature stages.

thiamethoxam (Actara): 3.0 to 5.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

thiamethoxam (Platinum): 5 to 11 oz/A; PHI 30d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic insecticide used in an in-furrow, banded, drench, or drip irrigation application to the seedling root zone during or after transplanting operations.

spiromesifen (Oberon 2SC): 7 to 8.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 23. Most effective on immature stages.

Cross-striped Cabbageworm (Evergestis rimosalis)

Formerly restricted to areas south of New England, this insect is now a significant pest of brassicas in CT, RI and MA. It has 2 to 3 generations per year and is most abundant on late-season plantings. Unlike the other major caterpillar pests on brassicas, the cross-striped cabbageworm (CSC) lays its eggs in batches (3 to 25) rather than singly, so caterpillars emerge in clusters. Egg batches are yellow, flattened, overlapping like fish scales, and attached to the lower leaf surfaces. Larvae grow to 3/4" long in 2 to 3 weeks. The caterpillars are light bluish-grey on top and green underneath, with numerous black bands across their backs and a yellow stripe down each side. Pupation takes place in soil, near the surface. Caterpillars produce small holes in leaves until only veins remain, or target terminal buds and sprouts, or may burrow into heads. Plants with larvae present are often completely skeletonized, while adjacent plants may be left undamaged. Plow under debris after harvest and control wild mustard and Shepherd's purse to help reduce pest populations. Scout weekly for caterpillars and damage. Spray if 5% of the plants are infested with CSC. Use selective insecticides to preserve parasitic wasps.

azadirachtin & pyrethrins (AzeraOG): 16 to 56 oz/A foliar, drench, and greenhouse applications; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Groups un & 3A.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 10 to 20 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Groups 16 & 28.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 3.5 to 7.5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28. May be applied to soil at planting, through chemigation and as a foliar spray.

cyclaniliprole (Harvanta): 10.9 to 16.4 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4 h, Bee: H, Group 28.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (Grandevo OG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group un.

emamectin benzoate (Proclaim*): 2.4 to 4.8 oz/A; PHI 7d heading and stem, 14d leafy brassicas and turnip greens, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 6. Rotate to another product after 2 applications.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.66 to 16 oz/A Danitol 2.4EC + 0.25 to 2 lb/A DiPel DF; PHI 7d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3. For head and stem brassicas only.

indoxacarb (Avaunt): 2.5 to 3.5 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 22. Add a wetting agent to improve spray coverage.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 8 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

tebufenozide (Confirm 2F): 6 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use low rate for early season applications to young, small plants. Use of an adjuvant is recommended.

Cutworm

See cutworms in the Pepper and Outdoor Tomato sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 0.8 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 10 to 20 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Groups 16 & 28.

carbaryl (10% Sevin Granules): 20 lb/A; PHI 3d broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kohlrabi, 14d Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard greens, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For broadcast treatment only. Use within 30 days of crop emergence or transplanting.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group un.

cryolite (Prokil Cryolite): 8 to 16 lb/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee:L, Group un.

diazinon (Diazinon* AG500): 2 to 4 qt/A broadcast and incorporate before planting; REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. For broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, collards, kale, mustard greens and cauliflower.

esfenvalerate (Asana*XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d, PHI 7d collards, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards only.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.66 to 16 oz/A Danitol 2.4EC; PHI 7d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3. For head and stem brassicas only.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 0.77 to 1.28 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Head and stem Brassicas only.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For head and stem Brassicas only.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 pt/A; PHI 1d cabbage, 3d Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, 10d collards, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For variegated cutworm only.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Suppression only.

permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 6.4 to 12.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Cabbage and Chinese cabbage only.

spinosad (SeduceOG): 20 to 44 lb/A or 0.5 to1 lb/1000 sq ft; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Spread bait on soil around plants.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 2.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. striolata)

In New England, two species are found on brassicas: the crucifer flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae), which is uniformly black and shiny, about 2 mm in length; and the striped flea beetle (P. striolata), which is black with 2 yellow stripes on its back. These two species feed only on brassicas, and attack all types of brassica crops and weeds.  Populations have increased over the past twenty-five years, so that on many farms flea beetle is a key pest of brassicas. Adult beetles overwinter outside cropped fields, in the soil surface and decaying plant residue of shrubby or woody borders. They search out host crops from early May into June and feed on leaves and stems, leaving small round pits and holes. Beetles hop quickly off the plant when disturbed. Eggs are laid in soil near the plant. Tiny white larvae feed on root hairs and pupate underground. New adults emerge from mid-July through early August and feed throughout August. Spring crops are damaged by over-wintered adults, while fall crops are damaged by summer adults, but it may be difficult to distinguish the generations when pressure is severe. Feeding generally declines in September, as adults leave fields for overwintering. There may be a small second generation of adults, which emerges in late September. Heavy feeding can kill seedlings, and moderate damage can stunt growth, delay maturity, reduce yield, and make crops unmarketable. Crops with more waxy leaves (Brassica oleracea such as cabbage, broccoli, and kale) are less attractive and feeding is more restricted to leaf margins, especially as crop matures. Crops with glossy leaves (e.g. B. rapa such bok choy, Napa cabbage, or B. juncea such as mustard) are highly attractive; the whole leaf is damaged and the crop is susceptible until harvest.

Escape peak adult activity and avoid the buildup of high populations by rotating spring crops as far as possible from last season's fall brassica crops, and planting late-season crops far from early brassicas. Where feasible, avoiding all early brassicas (until July) can be used to break the reproductive cycle. Incorporate and till crops immediately after harvest to expose and kill larvae and pupae. Provide adequate water and nutrients for crop growth. Avoid soil compaction. Floating row covers provide excellent protection of the crop if well secured with soil or bags around all edges immediately after seeding or transplanting. Remove and replace the same day for cultivation, as needed. Use attractive brassica types (B. rapa or B. juncea) on borders or within the field as a trap crop to draw beetles from less attractive types. Spray the trap crop to suppress beetles in the whole field, and to protect the trap crop for harvest. Scout across the field by counting beetles from above, then under the leaves, and estimating % leaf damage. Because brassica crops differ greatly in susceptibility and attractiveness there is no fixed economic threshold that applies to all crops and crop stages. A working threshold of 1 beetle per plant or >10% average leaf damage on 50% of the plants has proved effective in leafy greens and early stages of heading brassicas. Repeated applications may be needed if pressure is high.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

azadirachtin & pyrethrins (AzeraOG): 16 to 56 oz/A foliar, drench, and greenhouse applications; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Groups un & 3A.

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 2.4 to 3.2 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1 qt/A; PHI 3d cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kohlrabi, 14d kale, collards, Chinese cabbage, mustard, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

cryolite (Prokil Cryolite): 8 to 16 lb/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group un.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 13.5 to 20.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark):  6.75 to 13.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting.

cyclaniliprole (Harvanta): 16.4 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4 h, Bee: H, Group 28.

dinotefuran (Venom): 1 to 4 oz/A for foliar application to head and stem brassicas, 2 to 3 oz/A for foliar application to leafy brassicas; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d, 7d collards, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards only.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.66 to 16 oz/A Danitol 2.4EC + 3 to 4 oz/A Belay; PHI 21d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3. For head and stem brassicas only. Do not apply during bloom or if bees are actively foraging.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Head and stem brassicas only.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.3 oz/A; PHI 7d foliar, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Foliar applications only.

kaolin (Surround WPOG): 25 to 50 lb/A or 0.25 to 0.5 lb/gal; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Suppression and repellence only. May be applied to transplants prior to setting in field. Use on seedlings and young plants. White residue is difficult to wash off leaves and heads; use only on very young leaves or leaves that will not be harvested.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For head and stem brassicas.

permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 6.4 to 12.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Cabbage and Chinese cabbage only.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed. For beetle larvae only. 

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 4 to 8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Suppression only.

thiamethoxam (Actara): 1.5 to 3 oz/A; PHI 7d leafy brassica greens, PHI 0d head and stem brassicas, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

thiamethoxam (Platinum): 5 to 11 oz/A; PHI 30d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic insecticide used as an in-furrow, banded, drench, or drip irrigation application to the seed/seedling root zone during or after planting/transplanting operations.

tolfenpyrad (Torac): 17 to 21 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 21A.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 2.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci)

Onion thrips can be a significant problem on cabbage, where thrips feed on inner leaves of the head which are difficult to target by spraying. Damage may also occur on leafy brassicas such as broccoli, kale and collard, especially fall crops that are planted near a maturing onion crop.  Thrips cause rough, golden or brown scars to form on the underside of open leaves, or produce scars and discolored layers within cabbage heads. Inspection with a 10X lens shows wounds to the epidermis from the rasping mouthparts, and scars from wounds that healed over.  Thrips damage can be confused with oedema, a physiological disorder. See onion thrips in the Onion section for more information on identification, life cycle and management.  Damage is most severe in hot, dry weather.

Tolerant varieties are the most cost-effective means of controlling thrips in cabbage. Varietal resistance is generally not available in other brassicas. Cabbage varieties that have showed tolerance in trials include Bobcat (highly tolerant), Benelli, Cairo, Superkraut 86, Bravo, Brutus, Cheers, Huron, and the various Vantage varieties.  Varieties that are rated as susceptible include Atlantis, Bajonet, Charmant, Checkmate, Market Prize, and Rinda. There are a great number of varieties, and not all have been tested. Also, available varieties change. Some seed catalogues rate thrips tolerance. Consult your seed suppliers and search recent research trials regarding thrips tolerance on new varieties.

Avoid thrips by not planting cabbage or fall brassica crops near alliums (onion family), or field crops such as alfalfa, clover, wheat, or oat that can harbor large populations of thrips, which may migrate to brassicas when these crops are cut or harvested. Scout young plants for presence and feeding injury. Begin applications when damage is first noticed; in cabbage, apply foliar treatments before heads form. In fall brassicas, the need for thrips controls may coincide with sprays for flea beetle or caterpillars and some insecticides control both.  Repeat applications at 7- to 10-day intervals based on scouting. Use a shorter interval in hot, dry weather. Use spreader-sticker for better coverage. Apply in early evening, using high pressure and 100 gal water/A for best results. Systemic insecticides applied as a side dress up to 4-6 weeks after transplanting may provide adequate control in long-season cabbage. Rotate between insecticide groups to help prevent or delay resistance.

acetamiprid (Assail 30SG): 4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.  Applications during the "cupping" stage of cabbage may be especially helpful in preventing injury.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 3.2 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO): 8 to 32 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 22. Thoroughly cover foliage. Takes 7 to 10 days after application to see control.

beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 0.8 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 13.5 to 20.5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28. Suppression only.

cyantraniliprole (Verimark):  6.75 to 13.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting. Suppression only.

dinotefuran (Safari 20SG): 0.16 to 0.32 dry oz/1,000 sq ft or 7 to 14 oz/A; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kohlrabi transplants only while in greenhouse. Not for field use. Suppression only.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Suppression only. Head and stem Brassicas only.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 4.4 to 10.5 oz/A; PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Soil applications only.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 2.5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. May need to make repeated applications. For enhanced and residual control, apply with companion labeled inseccticide.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For head and stem brassicas. Suppression only.

novaluron (Rimon 0.83EC): 12 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 16B. For head and stem brassicas.

permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 3.2 to 6.4 oz/A for brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cavalo broccoli, kohlrabi; 3.2 to 12.8 oz/A for broccoli, Chinese broccoli; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for other brassicas.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

spinetoram (Radiant SC): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Efficacy improves with the addition of an adjuvant.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 4 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Efficacy improves with the addition of an adjuvant.

sulfoxaflor (Closer SC): 5.75 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4C. Suppression only.

thiamethoxam (Actara): 3 to 5.5 oz/A; PHI 7d leafy brassica greens, 0d head and stem brassicas, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

thiamethoxam (Platinum): 5 to 11 oz/A; PHI 30d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic insecticide used as an in-furrow, banded, drench, or drip irrigation application to the seed/seedling root zone during or after planting/transplanting operations.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Slugs

There are several species of slugs that damage vegetable crops in New England, including grey garden, banded, marsh and spotted garden slugs.  They may be dark gray, black, yellow or brown, covered with spots, and range from ¾ to nearly 4" long. Eggs may be laid several times per year, and slugs reach maturity in 3 to 6 months. They can become abundant in low- and no-till situations, in land that was recently fallow, along hedgerows, or wherever plant debris, mulches, stones or boards provide cover and daytime hiding places. Slugs usually feed at night but may also feed during the day during prolonged periods of cloudy wet weather. They are attracted to succulent leaves in moist environments, such as cabbage, pak choi, and Chinese cabbage. They will also feed on fruiting crops such as tomato, pepper and eggplant. Damage appears as shredded foliage or shallow fruit holes. They have a rasp-like tongue that wears a hole through the leaf instead of making a clean cut like a caterpillar or beetle. On some thick-leaved brassicas such as cabbage, the hole will appear larger on 1 leaf surface and taper to a smaller hole in the opposite surface.  Scout by looking for silvery slime trails on leaves or turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs during daylight hours, or scout plants after dusk. Slug populations can also be monitored with unbaited traps consisting of 6"-deep holes covered with foil-covered shingles, which provide a cool hiding place during the day. To control slugs use habitat and cultural management supplemented by handpicking or trapping (on a small scale), repellents and toxic baits.  Grow plants away from moist, shaded habitats, use clean cultivation, control weeds, and eliminate hiding places.  Use trickle irrigation instead of overhead to reduce humidity and moist surfaces. On a small scale, handpick slugs after dusk using gloves and drop slugs in soapy water; repeat for several days. Baits should be applied to the ground near infested plants. It may be necessary to reapply after a rain, or make multiple applications when populations are high.

iron phosphate (Sluggo: Snail and Slug BaitOG): 20 to 44 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 0h, Bee: L, Group 9B. Apply around perimeter, scatter around base of plants, or band down rows. Apply to moist soil in the evening.

metaldehyde (Deadline Bullets): 20 to 40 lb/A; REI 12h, Bee: L. Soil surface treatment broadcast pre-planting, or band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Apply to moist soil in the evening. Do not apply directly to or contaminate edible portions of plants.

Swede Midge (Contarinia nasturtii)

A serious pest of crucifers in Europe. Recently introduced into North America, currently established in Quebec. In New England, it is established in northwestern Vermont, with range expanding southward and eastward. Adults are tiny (1/16"), weak-flying, brown flies, while larvae are translucent maggots when small and turn yellow as they grow to 1/8". They spend the winter as pupae in the top 2" of soil. Maggots infest the tissue near the growing tip and produce malformed plants with brown corky tissue, galls, no-heads, multi-heads, and twisted leaf petioles. Damage is most severe on broccoli, Chinese broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and Asian greens. There may be 3 to 4 generations each year. Scout young plants near field borders and tree lines prior to heading or at the pre-cupping stage. Avoid importing infested plants by using New England-grown transplants. Use a 3-year crop rotation. Plant spring brassicas at least 1/2 mile from fall brassica fields. Deep plowing destroys pupae. Spring plantings may avoid peak populations later in the season. If possible, plant away from tree lines that shelter weak-flying adults. Report and confirm infestations to state IPM specialist or to the diagnostic lab.

acetamiprid (Assail 30SG): 4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4.

azadirachtin & pyrethrins (AzeraOG): 16 to 56 oz/A foliar, drench, and greenhouse applications; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Groups un & 3A.

Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media (Venerate XCOG): 1 to 8 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M. Suppression only.

spirotetramat (Movento): 4 to 5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 24h, Bee: M, Group 23. Must be tank-mixed with a spray adjuvant with spreading and penetrating properties to maximize leaf uptake and sytemicity; don't use sticker adjuvants. Controls immature stages; may also reduce adult fertility.