Bean: Snap, Lima and Dry

Introduction

Snap and dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and P. coccineus) are relatively easy to grow in New England while lima beans (P. lunatus) are more difficult. Other specialty bean crops include Edamame soybeans (Glycine max) and fava or broad beans (Vicia faba). Beans should be planted in well-drained soil, and should not be repeatedly planted in the same field (use at least a 3-year rotation) to avoid soil-borne diseases.

Plant only when soil temperatures have reached 60°F (late May-early June). Optimum seed germination occurs at soil temperatures above 70°F. Irrigation may be necessary at time of bloom in order to ensure maximum pod set under dry soil conditions. Temperatures above 90°F or below 50°F cause poor pod set.

Types and Varieties

Snap beans can have green, purple or yellow (wax) pods, and grow in bush (P. vulgaris) or vine/pole forms (P. coccineus). Pods are oval, round, or flat (Italian types), depending on cultivar. Filet beans are ones that have slender stringless pods that stay small and thin. Good commercial yields for fresh market are 200 bushels or more per acre.

Lima beans (P. lunatus) are of minor importance in most areas in New England. Seed germination requires warm soil. A relatively long time to maturity reduces the length of the harvest season and restricts production in northern New England. A good yield of shelled lima beans is 3,000 lb/A.

Dry beans. In recent years, a significant acreage of pea beans and a small, but important, acreage of light red kidney varieties have been grown in northern New England. Vermont and Maine have a thriving tradition of growing heirloom varieties. For additional information about dry beans, see the Northeast Dry Bean Production Guide (University of Vermont Extension, March 2017) at https://cdn.sare.org/wp-content/uploads/20171204115634/NEDryBeanProductionGuide2017.pdf

Snap, Lima, and Dry Bean Varieties
Snap Beans - green Lima Beans
Affirmed - A, BCMV, BBR, HB:1,2 Fordhook 242
BA0958 - BCMV Eastland - DM
Bronco - BCMV King of the Garden - pole
Concesa - BCMV, HB  
Fortex - pole Dry Beans
Jade II - BCMV, BR Jacob's Cattle
Lewis - BCMV, CT, HB, BR, BBR Maine Yellow Eye
Provider - BCMV, PM Pinto
Savanna - BCMV, A, CT Redkote Kidney - HB
Seychelles - pole Seafarer Pea Bean - A, HB, BCMV
Tema - BCMV White Marrow
  Marfax
Snap Beans - Italian flat-podded  
Capitano (yellow) Snap Beans - yellow/wax
Greencrop - BCMV Carson - BCMV, A
Roman II - BCMV Rocdor - BCMV, A
Romano Gold (yellow) Eureka - BCMV, BBR
  Monte Gusto - pole
Snap Bean - slender filet  
Maxibel Snap Beans - purple
Tavera - A, BCMV Amethyst
Velour (purple) Royal Burgundy
  Carminat - pole

Resistant to: A: Anthracnose; BBR: Bacterial Brown Rot: BR: Bean Rust; BCMV: Bean Common Mosaic Virus; CT: Curly Top Virus; DM: Downy Mildew; HB: Halo Blight; PM: Powdery Mildew. Other codes: Pole = pole beans (all others are bush).

Soil Fertility 

Apply lime according to soil test to maintain soil pH at 6.5-6.8.

Apply no more than 80-100 lb/A combined weight of nitrogen and potash through the planter. Because beans are sensitive to salt or ammonia injury, keep fertilizer 2-3 in. away from the seed.

A sidedressing of 30 lb nitrogen/A at prebloom may extend harvest period of snap beans and increase yields, especially on sandy soils. Machine harvested snap or dry beans are unlikely to need sidedressing. Less nitrogen fertilizer will be needed if legume sod was plowed down or if manure was applied (see Table 1 and Table 7).

Beans can suffer from zinc (Zn) deficiency or boron (B) toxicity.  If soil tests report less than 1.0 ppm Zn, then add 10 lbs per acre zinc sulfate to the starter fertilizer. If soils contain more than 0.5 ppm B, then avoid growing beans in this field.

PLANT NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATION ACCORDING TO SOIL TEST RESULTS FOR Bean: Snap, Dry, and Lima
Bean: Snap, LIMA and DRY NITROGEN (N)* LBS PER ACRE PHOSPHORUS (P) LBS P2O5 PER ACRE POTASSIUM (K) LBS K2O PER ACRE
SOIL TEST RESULTS   VERY LOW LOW OPTIMUM ABOVE OPTIMUM VERY LOW LOW OPTIMUM ABOVE OPTIMUM
Broadcast or Planter* 50 100 75 0-50 0 100 75 0-50 0
TOTAL RECOMMENDED 50 100 75 0-50 0 100 75 0-50 0
*DO NOT EXCEED A TOTAL OF 80LB. N/A PLUS K20 AS A PREPLANT INCORPORATE, IF NECESSARY.

Planting

Seeds may be inoculated with the appropriate isolates of Rhizobium to increase nitrogen fixation and yields. When purchasing inoculum, purchase fresh inoculum each year, and follow suppliers' guidelines to make sure that you are purchasing the correct strains to inoculate each crop species.

Bush Snap Beans: Plants should be spaced 1.5-2 in. within rows and 18-36 in. between rows. Use the higher plant population under a more favorable environment. Sow 75-100 lb of seed/A (approximately 0.5 lb/100 feet of row) depending on seed type and percent germination. Plant seed 1-1.5 in. deep, depending on soil type and/or soil moisture content. Repeat seeding every 2-3 weeks for a continuous supply.

Pole Beans: Pole beans can be supported by a bean trellis of a large mesh nylon material or chicken wire fencing. Removing the plants from the fence is a chore, while nylon mesh is disposable. The traditional manner is to use a 4 pole tepee method. When using the trellis or fence method, plant seeds 1-2 in. deep, 6 in. apart, in rows 4 feet apart. For the tepee method, plant 6-7 seeds around each pole. One lb of seed will plant 240 feet of row or around 150 poles.

Lima Beans: Plants should be spaced 4-6 in. within rows and 18-36 in. between rows. Use 40-60 lb seed/A (4-6 oz/100 feet of row). Plant 1 in. deep in moist heavy soils and 2 in. deep in dry, sandy soils.

Dry Beans: Plants should be spaced 2-3 in. within rows and 28-36 in. between rows. Rate of seeding depends on seed size, percent germination, time of planting, and row spacing (check seed supplier recommendations for each cultivar). Plant 1 in. deep in moist heavy soils and 2 in. deep in dry, sandy soils.

Harvest

Snap Beans: Snap beans for fresh market should be harvested when they reach the desired size. Beans should be harvested when the pod is bright green and fleshy, and the seeds are small and green.  Pods should snap easily when bent. Large-scale growers should investigate mechanical harvesters. Hand-harvest multiple times or machine-harvest once when the highest percentage of marketable beans are mature.  Optimum storage conditions are 41-45°F at 95-100% relative humidity, but storage time is limited. Temperatures of 38°F and lower may cause chilling injury. After >10% weight loss, beans will not be marketable. Avoid storing or shipping beans with ethylene-generating fruits and vegetables. 

Lima beans: Harvest should take place when 2/3-3/4 of the pods have filled and are yellowing, but before any pods have dried. Other harvest practices are similar to that for dry beans. 

Dry beans: Most require 90-100 days to mature. Dry beans should not be harvested until the majority of pods have turned yellow and thoroughly matured, but before the pods dry to the point of shatter. The mature beans should be so hard that you cannot easily bite into the seed. Harvesting in the morning while there is still dew can minimize loss to shatter. Mechanized harvesting can be done with a puller-cutter, which will uproot or cut the entire plant and lay it on the ground in windrows as the machine moves along the field. Windrows can be combined when beans have dried to 18% moisture.  Once shelled, beans should be conditioned using a low temperature and dried to a moisture level of 15-16%, then stored in rodent and insect proof bins at temperature ranging from 35-55ºF.

Defoliants/Harvest Aids for Dry Beans

carfentrazone (Aim EC): PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 14.  Apply 1 to 6.1 fl oz per acre to use as a harvest aid to dry beans at maturity when 80 to 90% of seed pods are yellow or buck skin in color and only 30% of green leaves remain on the plant. Thorough coverage is essential for harvest aid and multiple applications may be needed. For optimum performance use 15 to 30 gallons per acre finished sprayed with a methylated seed oil (MSO) type adjuvant to ensure thorough coverage and retention for harvest aid.

flumioxazin (Valor SX): PHI 5d.  Apply when crop is mature and at least 80% of the pods are yellowing and mostly ripe with no more than 40% (bush type beans) or 30% (vine type beans) of the leaves still green in color. To ensure thorough coverage use 15-30 gallons spray solution per acre. Do not apply more than 3 oz/A during a single application and do not apply more than 3 oz/A during a single growing season.  Adjuvant required. Crop oil concentrate or methylated seed oil at 2% v/v should be used. A spray grade nitrogen source (either ammonium sulfate at 2-2.5 lb/A or a 28-32% nitrogen solution at 1-2 qt/A) may also be added to the spray mixture to enhance desiccation. Can be tank mixed with glyphosate or paraquat to increase control of emerged weeds and aid in harvest.

paraquat (Gramoxone SL 2.0)PHI 7d, REI 48h, Group 22.  Apply 1.2 to 2 pt/A in 20 gal water with ground equipment or in a minimum of 5 gal water with aerial equipment. Add spreader (nonionic) at 1 qt per 100 gal spray mix. For vining-type beans or bush-type with lush growth, use a single application of the higher rate. May also be applied as a split application. Do not make more than two applications or exceed a total of 2 pts/A. The split application method may improve vine coverage. Apply when the crop is mature and at least 80% of the pods are yellowing and mostly ripe with no more than 40% (bush type) or 30% (vine type) of the leaves still green in color. Do not apply when weather conditions favor spray drift. A drift control agent may be included to reduce spray drift. Do not use on fava beans. May be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Applicators must complete an EPA-approved paraquat training listed on the following website https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-worker-safety/paraquat-dichloride-training. The training must be completed a minimum of every three years.

saflufenacil (Sharpen): PHI 2d. Make a single application of 1-2 fl oz/A in a minimum spray volume of 10 gallons/A over the top of dry edible beans that have reached physiological maturity (at least  80% yellow/brown pods, and no more than 30% of leaves still green for vine-type beans/lentils or no more than 40% of leaves still green for bush-type beans). Thorough spray coverage and a methylated seed oil plus ammonium-based adjuvant system (refer to the Additives Section of label for details) are required for optimum desiccation activity. Allow up to 10 days for optimum desiccation effect.

 

Disease Control

NOTE: For the disease control products listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (common name) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same active ingredient. Please see Table 25 and Fungicides and Bactericides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on products with the same active ingredients.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum)

Anthracnose is common in beans and is primarily a seedborne disease surviving on dry, undecomposed residues for up to 5 years. Symptoms begin as red spots on leaves and pods that develop into black lesions. Leaf veins can turn red-brown. Start with certified, disease-free seed and use resistant cultivars. Fungicides may be applied as seed treatments or foliar sprays.

azoxystrobin (Quadris): 6.0 to 15.5 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 11.

azoxystrobin plus chlorothalonil (Quadris Opti): 1.6 to 2.4 pt/A; PHI 14d, REI 12h, Groups 11 & M5. DRY bean only. See label for tank mix precautions.  

azoxystrobin plus propiconazole (Quilt Xcel): 10.5 to 14.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d succulent; PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Groups 11 & 3.

chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik): 1.375 to 3.0 pt/A (succulent), 1.375 to 2.0 pt/A (dry); PHI 7d (succulent) to 14d (dry), REI 12h, Group M05.

fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin (Priaxor Xemium): 4.0 to 8.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent), 21d (dry), REI 12 h, Groups 7 & 11.

penthiopyrad (Fontelis): 14.0 to 30.0 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 7. Maximum 2 applications per year.

potassium bicarbonate (PB 133, AKA MilStopOG): 2.5 lb/100 gal; PHI 0d, REI 1h.

propiconazole (Tilt): 4.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Group 3.

Pseudomonas chloraphis (HowlerOG): 2.5 to 7.5 lbs/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group BM 02. Use preventatively.

pyraclostrobin (Headline): 6.0 to 9.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent) to 21d (dry), REI 12h, Group 11. Apply at the beginning of flowering. Do not make more than 2 applications/ before rotating to a non-Group 11 fungicide.

Reynoutria sachalinensis extract (RagaliaOR): 1.0 to 4.0 qt/A ground application; PHI od, REI 4h, Group P5. Application to ensure thorough coverage. See label for specific application instructions.

thiophanate-methyl (Topsin 4.5 FL): 30 to 40 fl oz/A; PHI 14d (snap) to 28d (dry), REI 24h (succulent), 72h (dry), Group 1. Rate is dependent on crop phenology, see label for details.

Downy Mildew-Lima Beans (Phytophthora phaseoli)

Downy mildew resistant lima bean varieties are available. Rotate to non-susceptible crops. Apply seed treatments to protect germinating seedlings against soilborne inoculum. Plow under infected debris in fall. Rotate with crops other than beans for two years.

chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik): 1.375 to 3.0 pt/A (succulent), 1.375 to 2 pt/A (dry); PHI 7d (snap) to 14d (succulent), REI 12h, Group M5.

copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000): 0.5-1.25 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Group M01. Do not apply in a spray solution having a pH less than 6.5 or tank mix with Aliette.

cyazofamid (Ranman): Succulent beans ONLY. 2.75 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 21. Tank mix with organosilicone or non-ionic surfactant.

fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin (Priaxor Xemium): 4.0 to 8.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent), 21d (dry), REI 12h, Groups 7 & 11. Maximum 2 applications per year.

mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold XL): Succulent beans ONLY. 0.125 to 0.2 pt/A. PHI 3d, REI 48h, Group 4. Must be tank mixed with high rate of another fungicide registered for downy mildew.

phosphorous acid  (Fosphite): 1.0 to 3.0 qt/100 gal; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 33. Do not apply to heat or moisture stressed crops or plants recently treated with copper.

potassium bicarbonate (PB 133, AKA MilStopOG): 2.5 lb/100 gal; PHI 0d, REI 1h.

Pseudomanas chloraphis (HowlerOM): 2.5 TO 7.5 lbs/A. PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group BM 02. Use preventatively.

pyraclostrobin (Headline): 6.0 to 9.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent) to 21d (dry), REI 12h, Group 11. Do not make more than 2 applications before rotating to a non-Group 11 fungicide.

Rhizoctonia solani

Rhizoctonia stem canker caused by strains of the soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani is common throughout the world on peas and beans. The pathogen survives between crop seasons as sclerotia (survival structures), mycelium in the soil, or on or in infected plant debris.  It is spread in infested soil or plant debris by wind, rain, irrigation water, and machinery. When a soil becomes infested, it remains so indefinitely. Seedlings and young plants are highly susceptible to infection and disease severity is increased by low soil temperatures and compaction. Seed decay and damping off can be controlled by using high-quality seed, with high germination and vigor,  and by practices that encourage rapid germination and emergence.  Seed treatments are not effective against infections later in the season. The disease may be reduced by sowing seed as shallowly as possible in warm, moist soil. Land preparation that minimizes soil compaction and structural damage will lessen disease severity. Rotate crops with a cereal or pasture crop (avoid beets, beans, brassicas and potatoes which increase inoculum). Cover crops and other practices that increase organic matter and improve soil structure are recommended. Some brassica crops (mustard, rape) used as green manure have been reported to be disease suppressive. Avoid incorporating green manure immediately before planting or damaging roots by shallow cultivation. Fungicides can manage Rhizoctonia root rot on young seedlings if applied as a seed treatment or soil drench.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens F727 (StargusOG): 2 to 4 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group BM02. Apply preventatively in a minimum of 50 gallons of water/A.

fludioxonil (Maxim 4FS): 0.08 to 0.16 oz/100 lb seed; REI 12h, Group 12. For protection against seedborne and soilborne fungi.

PCNB (Blocker 10G): Bush and pole beans ONLY. 1.0 lbs/1,000 ft. (bush), 1.0-2.0 lbs/1,000ft. (pole); REI 12h, Group 14. Apply in a 12-15 inch band over seed in-furrow at planting time and cover immediately. Do not feed treated vines to livestock.

Reynoutria sachalinensis extract (RagaliaOG): 1.0 to 4.0 qt/A ground application; PHI 0D, REI 4h, Group P5. Apply to ensure thorough coverage. See label for specific application instructions.

Trichoderma asperellum, T. gamsii (BiotamOG): See label for in-furrow, drench, and broadcast rates; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group BM02.

thiram (Thiram 42-S): 2.0 fl oz. (snap and dry), 3.0 fl. (Lima)/100 lb seed; REI 24h, Group M03.

Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus)

Symptoms are most visible on the undersides of leaves. Symptoms begin as tiny white raised spots called pustules that break open to produce distinct red spots with dust-like spores (uridiniospores) which easily brush off. Spots may be surrounded by yellow halos in some varieties. Severely infested leaves fall off plants. Overwintering spores (teliospores) are black in color. Plant resistant varieties. Plow under crop debris immediately after harvest. Bury or otherwise destroy crop residues to reduce overwintering inoculum. Rotate away from beans for 2 years or up to 5 years in reduced tillage. Avoid overfertilization with high levels of nitrogen, but ensure adequate potassium. Disinfect poles in production of pole beans. Avoid long periods of leaf wetness when irrigating during times when temperatures are warm. 

azoxystrobin (Quadris): 6.0 to 15.5 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group 11. 

azoxystrobin plus chlorothalonil (Quadris Opti): 1.6 to 2.4 pt/A; PHI 14d, REI 12h, Groups 11 & M5. DRY bean only. See label for tank mix precautions. Not labeled for soybean. 

azoxystrobin plus propiconazole (Quilt Xcel): 10.5 to 14 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent), 14 (dry), REI 12h, Groups 11 & 3.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (DoubleNickelOG): 0.25 to 3.0 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4 h, Group BM02. Disease suppression only. For improved control; mix or rotate with a chemical fungicide.

chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik): 1.375 to 3.0 pt/A (succulent), 1.375 to 2 pt/A (dry); PHI 14d, REI 12h, Group M05.

fluxapyroxad plus pyraclostrobin (Priaxor Xemium): 4.0 to 8.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent), 21d (dry), REI 12 h, Groups 7 & 11. Maximum 2 applications per year.

myclobutanil (Rally): 4.0 to 5.0 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group 3. Observe a 30-day plant back interval.

penthiopyrad (Fontelis): 14.0 to 30.0 fl oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Group 7. Maximum 2 applications per year.

propiconazole (Tilt): 4.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Group 3. 

pyraclostrobin (Headline): 6.0 to 9.0 fl oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent) to 21d (dry), REI 12h, Group 11.  Do not make more than 2 applications per season before rotating with another Group 11 fungicide.

sulfur (Microthiol DisperssOG): 3.0 to 10.0 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 24h, Group M2.

Seed Decay

Buy treated seed. Do not use treated seed for food or feed.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (DoubleNickelOG): 0.125 to1.0 lb/A at planting; PHI 0d, REI 4 h, Group BM02. Suppression only.

fludioxonil (Maxim 4FS): 0.08 to 0.16 oz/100 lb seed; REI 12h, Group 12. For protection against seedborne and soilborne fungi.

mefenoxam (Apron XL): 0.16 to 0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed; REI 48h, Group 4. For Pythium damping off. Early season Phytophthora protection (0.64 fl oz/lb seed).

Streptomyces griseoviridis strain K61 (MycoStopOG): see label for rate information; REI 4h.

thiram (Thiram 42-S): 3.0 lb (lima) 2.0 lb (snap & dry)/100 lb seed; REI 12h, Group M3.

White Mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

Space plants to allow good air circulation. Plant on well-drained soil. Sclerotinia produces sclerotia, which are hard, black structures from 1/16" to 1/2" in length, inside or on the surface of infected tissue. Sclerotia can survive for years in the soil and are responsible for initiating disease. Germination of sclerotia and initiation of disease are dependent on prevailing weather conditions. Optimum temperature for sclerotia to germinate is about 52°F but some sclerotia germinate over a wider range of temperatures. Germination is also dependent on continuous soil wetness for 10 days.

Many vegetable crops and weeds are susceptible to this fungus; corn and grasses are not. Lettuce, cabbage, tomato, carrot, brassicas and snap beans are among the most susceptible and should not be grown on land known to be contaminated with Sclerotinia. After an episode of disease, rotate away from susceptible crops for 7 years. A single infected head of cabbage may produce more than 1,000 sclerotia. Removal of diseased plant material as soon as possible is highly is recommended.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens F727 (StargusOG): 2.0 to 4.0 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Group BM02. Apply in furrow at planting in a minimum of 5.0-15.0 gallons of water/A.

boscalid (Endura): 8.0 to 11.0 oz/A; PHI 7d (succulent), 21d (dry), REI 12h, Group 7. Do not make more than 2 applications per season.

cyprodinil plus fludioxonil (Switch 6.25 WG): 11.0 to 14.0 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Groups 9 & 12. Make the first application at 10-20% bloom. In some locations a single application at this timing will provide adequate disease control.

Coniothyrium minitans (Contans WGOG): Apply 1.0 to 4.0 lb/A in 20 to 50 gal water; REI 4h, Group BM02. Spray on the soil surface and incorporate into the top 2" of soil. Fall application is best or 3 to 4 months before planting to allow for the biocontrol agent to infect the sclerotia of Sclerotinia. 

fluazinam (Omega 500F): 0.5 to 0.85 pt/A; PHI 14d succulent, PHI 30d dry and lima beans, REI 12h, Group 29. Make the first application at 10-30% bloom.

iprodione (Rovral 4F): 1.5 to 2.0 pt/A; PHI 14d, REI 24h, Group 2. See label for restrictions. Limit 2 application per season.

penthiopyrad (Fontelis): 16.0 to 30.0 fl oz/A (succulent), 16.0 to 20.0 fl oz/A (dry); PHI 0d (succulent), 21d (dry), REI 12h, Group 7.

thiophanate-methyl (Topsin 4.5 FL): 20 to 30 oz/A; PHI 14d snap or lima and 28d dry, REI 24h (succulent) and 72h (dry), Group 1.

Trichoderma asperellum, T. gamsii (BiotamOG): See label for in-furrow, drench, and broadcast rates; REI 1h, Group BM02.

Ulocladium oudemansii (BotryStopOG): 2.0 to 4.0 lbs/A; REI 4h, Group BM02. Begin application when conditions are conducive to disease development.

Bacterial Diseases (Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas spp.)

Bacterial leaf diseases include: bacterial bean blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli), bacterial brown spot (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae), and halo blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola). Plant disease-free seed from a reliable supplier. Eliminate wild cherries and lilacs near bean fields. Do not cultivate or harvest when plants are wet. Use a 2-year rotation. Plow under infected debris in fall.

copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000): 0.5 to 1.25 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Group M1. Do not apply with a spray solution having a pH less than 6.5 or tank mix with Aliette.

Reynoutria sachalinensis extract (RegaliaOG): 1.0 to 4.0 qt/A ground application; PHI Od, REI 4h, Group P5. Apply to ensure thorough coverage. See label for specific application instructions.

Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)

In addition to mosaic and lesions of the foliage, BCMV can also cause blackened roots. Several different strains of the virus are recognized; the symptoms and host ranges vary according to the strain. The virus can be seedborne and is transmitted by at least 12 species of aphids in a nonpersistent manner. Resistant varieties are available and constitute the most reliable means of control. Seed treatment, insecticides, and roguing of diseased plants are of little value.

Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV)

Many strains of this virus are known. Symptoms of BYMV are easily confused with BCMV. However, BYMV is not seedborne and unlike BCMV, BYMV is spread in a persistent manner by more than 20 species of aphids. Entire plantings may become infected, resulting in substantial losses in yield. Disease outbreaks are often correlated with the presence of virus-source plants such as sweet clover, white clover, crimson clover, and Gladiolus sp. Since the virus overwinters in legumes such as clover and vetch, beans should be planted at least 800 ft away. Insecticides applied early will reduce spread. Control weeds. Plant mosaic resistant varieties (see varieties list, page 124).

Insect Control

NOTES:  For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 26 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.

All tolerances for chlorpyrifos in food crops were revoked in 2022, therefore products containing chlorpyrifos (e.g. Lorsban) cannot be applied to any food crop and growers CAN NOT use up existing stock.

The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.

The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

Aphids

Several species of aphids may probe, feed and cause direct damage or transmit disease in dry or snap beans: soybean, bean, pea, yellow clover, and green peach aphid. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) reproduces in soybeans but not green or dry beans; however, this species can colonize, inflict feeding injury and transmit virus to green and dry beans.  Soybean aphid is found on beans in New York and in the Midwest, with higher pressure in hot dry summers. It has been less important in New England but could increase, especially in soybean production areas. Virus diseases can be spread by aphids; however, using insecticides to control aphids is not effective for reducing these viruses. Generally, aphids in beans are controlled by natural enemies. Scout for aphids on undersides of leaves or terminal shoots. Treat only if aphids are well distributed throughout the field (50% or more of terminals with 5 or more aphids), natural enemies are lacking, and population is increasing. Use selective products for other pests to conserve natural enemies of aphids and to protect bees. Systemic insecticide may be used as seed treatment or at planting. Avoid planting beans near alfalfa or soybean.   See Peppers for more information about green peach aphid.

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A. Edible-podded and succulent shelled peas and beans only.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 14d dried, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed. Not labeled for control of Black Bean aphid.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 3.2 to 3.9 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21 d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group un.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Succulent beans only.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. For Pea aphid.

flonicamid (Beleaf): 2.8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12 h, Bee: L, Group 29.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.2 oz/A foliar, 7 to 10.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (PFR-97 20% WDGOG): 1 to 2 lb/A foliar; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1 d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A; 14 d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 100 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

sulfoxaflor (Transform WG): 0.75 to 1 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 4C. Do not apply until after petal fall.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4. Systemic seed treatment. For early-season protection from aphids. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed.

Cutworms

Cutworm larvae may be dull gray, brown, or black and may be striped or spotted, depending on the species. Another distinguishing quality is their act of rolling into a tight C-shape if disturbed. The two major species are the variegated cutworm (Peridroma saucia), which feeds on lower leaves and petioles, and the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), which largely feeds at the soil surface and below on roots and lower stems. The black cutworm will occasionally feed on leaves. Both are nocturnal feeders and take refuge under soil clumps, stones, vegetation, and other places during the day. Cutworms find weedy or minimum-tillage fields especially attractive sites to lay their eggs. Seedlings are most affected; look for cut stems or foliage feeding. Scout across the field, as injury may be limited to a few small areas. Control is warranted if overall plant stand or survival is threatened.  Caterpillars hide under the soil surface adjacent to the plant stem during the day and feed on stems after dark. For best results, make application between midnight and dawn while cutworms are feeding aboveground. See cutworms in the Pepper and Tomato (Outdoor) sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 14d dry 1 d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 1.3 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Succulent beans only.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. Most effective on species which feed on upper portions of the plant.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 5 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. On snap beans, use only as a seedling spray. No restriction on dry beans.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.60 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

spinosad (SeduceOG): 20 to 44 lb/A or 0.5 to1 lb/1000 sq ft.; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Spread bait on soil around plants.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 1.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa zea), and Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusiani)

These caterpillars are occasional pests of bean in New England. See Sweet Corn for more details on European corn borer (ECB) and corn earworm (CEW), and Cabbage and Other Brassica Crops for more information on cabbage looper (CL). In beans, ECB eggs are laid under leaves and larvae feed in stems, then bore into pods. The bloom period is most attractive for egg-laying. If a preferred host such as corn is not available, eggs will be laid in beans. This may occur where early beans are planted after a corn crop the previous year, or where late beans are near a maturing corn crop when the second ECB generation emerges.  The most susceptible period in snap bean is from bud stage (about 26 days before harvest) to pod formation (12 days before harvest), and in dry bean is for the 4 weeks preceding the onset of pods drying. Infestation depends on synchrony of ECB flight and bean stage. The most effective timing for a single insecticide application is bloom or pod formation. CEW or CL may lay eggs in beans when migratory flights are very high. CEW or CL caterpillars feed on leaves, buds, flowers, and pods, often damaging the beans. CEW and CL feeding holes may be larger than ECB entry holes. The impact of these caterpillars on overall plant growth and yield is minimal, but the tolerance for caterpillar infestation is extremely low in processing beans where larval contamination must be avoided. The most practical and effective control for ECB is to avoid planting early beans where corn was grown the previous year or late beans near corn where ECB may emerge. Monitor moth activity in corn using pheromone traps or refer to pest alert networks to detect peak or high flights. Scout if flights are high during the susceptible period of bean growth, looking for wilted or chewed trifoliate leaves, larvae, or pod injury. There is no set threshold for treatment.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A for CL; 3/4 to 1 lb/A for ECB and CEW; PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not permitted for use on succulent green beans (snap), except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A ECB and earworm, 3.2 to 3.9 looper; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group un.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel). Looper only.

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari). Looper only.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Succulent beans only.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. High rate for ECB. Not for CL.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 5-7.5 oz/A soil at planting, 3.5-7.5 oz/A foliar; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28. For ECB and CEW only.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN. Earworm and looper only.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for ECB on dry beans.  

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d snap; 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 16 oz/A for ECB and CL, 10 to 16 oz/A for CEW; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use lower rates when plants are small or infestations are light.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 3 to 6 oz/A ECB, 4 to 6 oz/A CEW & looper; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Garden Springtails (Bourletiella hortensis)

Tiny (1/16") blue-grey insects that seem to hop like fleas. Important in the decomposition of dead plant matter. Occasionally, high populations feed on leaves of seedlings producing tiny pits in the leaf surfaces. Feeding resembles that of flea beetles. Plants may die of excessive water loss. Populations tend to be extreme in fields high in organic matter, with reduced-till systems, and with soils that crack when drying. Use clean cultivation and spot-treat areas where damage occurs. Most broad-spectrum insecticides registered for cutworms or leafhoppers will also control springtails.

ethoprop (Mocap* 15G): 13 to 20 lb/A for 36" row spacing or 0.9 to 1.4 lb/1,000 linear ft in a band 12 to 15" wide at planting; REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Incorporate in top 2" to 4" of soil. Do not use as seed furrow treatment. Treated beans may mature 1 to 2 weeks later. For snap and lima beans only. 

Japanese Beetles (Popillia japonica)

Beetles migrate from turf or pastures starting in July and skeletonize leaves.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (PFR-97 20% WDGOG): 1 to 2 lb/A (soil applications only); PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

Mexican Bean Beetle (Epilachna varivestis)

Mexican bean beetle (MBB) most often builds up to damaging levels where snap beans are grown in the same or adjacent fields over successive years. Lima beans and dry beans are also susceptible, and MBB may feed in dry and edible-pod soybeans but are less likely to thrive on this host. Adults are copper-colored, oval, ladybeetles with black spots, 1/4-1/3 in. long. Eggs are orange to yellow in color, laid on the underside of leaves in clusters of 40-50.  Larvae are yellow with rows of branched, black-tipped spines. The pupa is attached to the leaf, lacks spines, and is yellow to yellow-orange. Adults spend the winter in hedgerows and move into fields in June. Adults and larvae skeletonize leaves and may cause pod damage if numbers are high.  There are 1-3 generations per year in New England, with newly emerging adults moving to the next succession planting of snap beans. A life cycle may be completed in 30-40 days during the summer. Populations are usually less abundant on early plantings and may not build to damaging levels until August. Prompt destruction of crop residue after harvest helps lower overwintering populations.  Avoid continuous production of beans in the same or adjacent fields year after year. Annual releases of the larval parasitoid Pediobius foveolatus, timed to coincide with egg hatch, can help control beetle larvae. The wasp will not survive our winters, so must be re-released each year, but reproduces and moves into later plantings. Parasitized larvae serve as pupal cases for the wasp, remaining on the leaf and turning brown. Scout for MBB by searching plants for adults, eggs and larvae, and assessing damage. Treat when defoliation exceeds 20% pre-bloom or 10% during pod development. The presence of adults, eggs and larvae indicates potential for further damage. Be sure to get coverage of the lower leaf surfaces. 

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 5 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 2.9 to 5.8 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

kaolin (Surround WPOG): 25 to 50 lb/A or 0.25 to 0.5 lb/gal; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Suppression and repellence only.  Use on seedlings and young plants, prior to pod set to avoid unsightly residue. Generally compatible as a tank mix with other insecticides.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.60 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 12 to 48 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed. For beetle larvae only.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4. Systemic seed treatment. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed. For early-season protection from Mexican bean beetles.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A

Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae)

Adults are light yellow-green, 1/8" long, and wedge-shaped (wider at the head), while nymphs are bright green, flatter and wider than adults, and move sideways in a crab-like fashion. Adults lay eggs in stems and nymphs hatch and feed, passing through five instars before becoming adults. Presence of nymphs indicates an established population. Both adults and nymphs cause injury by injecting a toxin as they feed through piercing-sucking mouthparts. Potato leafhoppers (PLH) overwinter in Louisiana and vicinity and move north on storm fronts into the central states and then into New England on winds from the west. Arrival time varies with year and location, ranging from late May to late June. Low levels of leafhopper feeding can severely damage plants, especially at the seedling stage. Signs of injury begin with leaf veins turning pale, followed by yellowing or browning of areas of the leaf or leaf tips, which is known as ‘hopperburn’. Leaves become brown, curl up, and die. Plants and roots may be stunted and yields reduced or lost. This process may take less than a week. PLH may also vector many viruses. Scout using sweep net or observing adults flying up when plants are shaken. Nymphs can be counted on undersides of leaves. Seedling beans should be treated if they have 2 adults per foot of row. From 3rd trifoliate leaf to bud stage, treat when PLH exceed 1 nymph/leaflet or 5 adults per foot of row, and repeat application in 7-10 days, if necessary. Be sure to treat lower leaf surfaces. In fields where a systemic seed treatment was used (e.g. Cruiser), foliar treatment should not be needed before bloom.

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A. Edible-podded and succulent shelled peas and beans only.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not permitted for use on succulent green beans (snap), except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 1.6 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Succulent beans only.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 2.9 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.2 oz/A foliar, 7 to 10.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

kaolin (Surround WPOG): 25 to 50 lb/A or 0.25 to 0.5 lb/gall; PH 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Suppression and repellence only. Use on seedlings and young plants prior to pod set to avoid unsightly residue. Generally compatible as a tank mix with other insecticides.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 12 to 48 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

paraffinic oil (Organic JMS Stylet-OilOG): 0.75 to 1.5 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4. Systemic seed treatment. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed. For early-season protection from leafhoppers.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Seedcorn Maggot (Delia platura)

Seedcorn maggot larvae feed on the seeds and young seedlings of large-seeded crops such as corn, beans, and peas, as well as early seedlings of spinach, onions, brassicas, tomato, cucurbits, and other crops. They are the first maggot flies to become active in spring, about one to two weeks earlier than onion or cabbage maggot. The adults look like small, gray houseflies with a slightly hump-backed shape. The seedcorn maggot larva is yellow-white, up to 1/4" long, legless, and has a wedge-shaped head. Pupae are oblong, brown, and about 4to 5mm long. The seedcorn maggot fly overwinters in the pupal stage, in the soil where they fed in the fall. In early spring, the adults emerge and lay eggs on the soil surface.  Growing degree days, using a base temperature of 39°F (4°C), can be used to predict peak emergence of the first generation (360ºF GDD or 200ºC GDD).  Flies are attracted to volatiles released from freshly tilled soil, as well as to buried cover crop residues, rotting manure, compost, organic surface residues (as is found in reduced till), and organic amendments such as fish, soybean or cottonseed meal.  Previously injured or diseased plants may also attract egg-laying. The eggs hatch within 2-4 days at soil temperatures of 60°F, and 7-9 days at 41 to 45°F. Larvae burrow downward in search of food and penetrate seeds as the seed coat splits open.  Though there are 2-4 generations per year, it is the first generation that causes the most damage. The first symptoms are usually poor emergence of seeds or wilting of transplants that have lost their roots to feeding. Look for maggots and feeding tunnels inside seeds or stems to help distinguish damage from that of wireworm feeding or damping off. Crops that are planted in wet soil, or soil that is too cool to support quick germination and seedling growth, are especially susceptible to damage. Wait until soil conditions favor crop emergence and growth to help seeds and seedlings avoid or quickly recover from injury. Plant shallowly to promote rapid emergence. Where possible, incorporate cover crops, manure or compost several weeks before seeding.  Put earliest plantings in lighter, well-drained, sandy soils that warm up fast. Among bean varieties, those with a dark seed coat sustain less injury than white varieties. Use row covers to exclude flies, except where flies may have fed in fall cover or vegetable crops and could emerge under the covers. Preventive chemical treatments include commercially applied systemic seed treatments and in-furrow applications of insecticides. Rescue treatments are not effective. If there is enough damage to warrant replanting, wait at least 5 days if maggots are a quarter inch long; if they are smaller than that, wait at least 10 days to make sure they have pupated and will not damage the new seeds.

phorate (Thimet* 20-G): 4.5 to 7 oz/1000 ft of row; REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Apply granules in band over row and lightly incorporate. DO NOT place granules in direct contact with seed. Make sure granules are covered with soil. Do not feed treated crop residue to livestock.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4. Systemic seed treatment.  Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed. For early-season protection from seedcorn maggot.

Slugs

Damage appears as shredded foliage or fruit holes. Look for silvery slime trails on leaves or turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs during daylight hours. Grow plants away from moist, shaded habitats, use clean cultivation, control weeds, hand pick/crush slugs or scatter baits on the ground near infested plants. See the Cabbage section for more information on slugs.

iron phosphate (Sluggo: Slug and Snail BaitOG): 20 to 44 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 0h, Bee: L, Group 9B. Apply around perimeter, scatter around base of plants, or band down rows. Apply to moist soil in the evening.

metaldehyde (Deadline Bullets): 20 to 40 lb/A; REI 12h, Bee: L. Soil surface treatment broadcast pre-planting, or band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Apply to moist soil in the evening. Do not apply directly to or contaminate edible portions of plants.

Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)

See Lettuce for information about tarnished plant bug.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A; PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Not permitted for use on succulent green beans (snap), except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Succulent beans only.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (PFR-97 20% WDGOG): 1 to 2 lb/A foliar; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 50 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

sulfoxaflor (Transform WG): 1.5 to 2.25 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 4C. Do not apply between three days prior to bloom and until after petal fall.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Two-spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)

Also known as Red Spider Mite. Outbreaks are favored by hot, dry weather and may be triggered by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides that kill the numerous natural enemies of mites. Spider mites affect dry, lima and snap beans. Infestations begin on the lower portions of the plant and move upward. Watch for white speckling and bronzing on the upper surface of leaves (veins may remain green) and grayish webbing on the undersurface around leaf veins. Use a 10X hand lens to see mites. Avoid early-season, broad-spectrum insecticide applications for other pests; use selective products whenever possible. Registered products for mites on beans may not provide complete control of the pest. With most miticides, use 2 applications approximately 5-7 days apart, to help control immature mites that were in the egg stage and protected during the first application. Coverage of the lower surface of the leaves is important. If further applications are needed, switch to an alternate resistance group to help prevent or delay resistance.  For more information on TSSM management, see the Eggplant section.

abamectin (Agri-Mek SC): 1.75 to 3.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 6. Must be mixed with a non-ionic activator type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating spray adjuvant. Do not use binder or sticker type adjuvant.

acequinocyl (Kanemite 15SC): 31 fl oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 20B. Succulent shelled bean only.

bifenazate (Acramite 50WS): 1 to 1.5 lbs/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group UN.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

fenpyroximate (Portal XLO): 2 pt/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 21A.

neem oil (TrilogyOG): 0.5 to 2% solution in 25 to 100 gal water/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 18. Avoid mid-day applications and ensure good coverage.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Apply as needed.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM Ultra): 50 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

sulfur (Microthiol DisperssOG): 3 to 10 lb/A; REI 24h, Bee:L, No IRAC classification. Check for sulfur sensitivity prior to treating the whole field; some varieties may be injured by sulfur.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Weed Control

Weeds may develop quickly because beans are slow to establish a canopy. Use a tine-weeder or a rotary hoe if there is not too much field residue for pre-emergent mechanical weed control. Do not cultivate when the beans are starting to emerge as seedlings are very fragile and can easily snap. Cultivate 3 to 4 times when beans are 2 to 3 inches tall until canopy closure. Bean taproots are easily torn from the ground during imprecise mechanical cultivation. To minimize damage to plants, do not cultivate when leaves are wet or just after they have flowered.

NOTE:  For the herbicides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient along with preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), resistance management group number, and example of rates and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same active ingredient. However, not all products with the same active ingredient are registered for use in a crop. Always check the product label to be sure that the crop is listed before using. 

Stale Seedbed

See Stale Seedbed Technique for information on the use of these herbicides.

glyphosate (Roundup Power Max): REI 12h, Group 9. Rate based on target weed species. See label for info.

paraquat (Gramoxone SL 2.0*): restricted use. REI 12h, Group 22. Snap and lima only. Use 2–4 pts/A. May be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Applicators must complete an EPA-approved paraquat training listed on the following website https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-worker-safety/paraquat-dichloride-training.... The training must be completed a minimum of every three years.

pelargonic acid (Scythe): PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 17. Use a 3 -10% solution (3 to 10 gallons per 100 gallons).

Preplant Incorporated/Preemergence, before weeds germinate

dimethenamid (Outlook): PHI 70d, REI 12h, Group 15.  Dry beans only (including small whites, navy, black turtle soup, pink, pinto, great northern, red Mexican, red kidney, cranberry, and lentils). May be applied preplant surface, preplant incorporated, preemergence, or early postemergence (1st to 3rd trifoliate). As a single application, apply 12 to 18 oz/A on coarse-textured soil and 14 to 21 oz/A on finer textured soils. A split application may be used (10 to 14 oz/A per application, not to exceed 21 oz/A total).  Allow 14 days between applications. Will not control emerged weeds. Check with seed supplier for potential varietal susceptibility to injury.

EPTC (Eptam 7E): REI 12h, Group 15. Do not use on lima beans. Apply 2.25 to 4.5 pt/A prior to planting, incorporate immediately to a depth of 2" to 4". Soil surface must be dry. For nutsedge, incorporate 4" to 6" deep. Do not exceed 3.5 pt/A on green beans grown on coarse-textured soil.

ethalfluralin (Sonalan HFP): REI 24h, Group 3. Not registered in CT or RI. Apply and incorporate before planting 1.5 to 4.5 pt/A (rate based on soil texture and target weeds, see label) prior to planting to a depth of 2" to 3".

pendimethalin (Prowl H2O): REI 24h, Group 3. Apply 2 to 3 pt/A preplant and incorporate into the soil 2" to 3".  Rate based on soil texture; see label for details.  Do not apply after seeding.

s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum): REI 12h, Group 15.  Apply either preplant incorporated or to the soil surface just after seeding. See label for specific rates on different soil types and organic matter content (1 to 2 pt/A). May be tank mixed with either EPTC or trifluralin. Follow precautions on all labels when tank mixing. NOTE: Crop injury has been noted on both snap beans and lima beans from the use of metolachlor. Use of tank mixes, where the rate of metolachlor could be lowered, will decrease the likelihood of crop injury.

trifluralin (Treflan HFP): REI 12h, Group 3. Rate based on soil texture and crop, see label for details.  Incorporate 1 to 2 pt/A before planting (1 to 1.5 pt/A for snap and lima bean). Must be incorporated into the top 2 to 3 inches of the final seedbed within 24 hours of application.  Disc twice after spraying for satisfactory incorporation. See label for info on incorporation recommendations based on different equipment and single pass incorporation.

At Planting - Preemergence, before weeds germinate

clomazone (Command 3ME): PHI 45d, REI 12h, Group 13.  Snap beans only. Apply 6.4 to 10.7 fl oz/A to the soil surface after seeding but before crop emergence. Use lower rate on coarse soils. Will control annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds including common lambsquarters, velvetleaf, and jimsonweed. Combining with Dual Magnum will also control yellow nutsedge and pigweed. Some temporary crop injury (partial whitening of leaf or stem tissue) may be visible after crop emergence. Complete recovery will occur from minor early injury without affecting yield or earliness. See label for replanting restrictions.

halosulfuron (Sandea): PHI 30d, REI 12h, Group 2. Rates vary based on crop and application timing (0.5 to 1 oz/A for succulent beans (snap and lima) and 0.5 to 2/3 oz/A for dry beans). Use the lower rate on lighter textured soils. Can cause temporary stunting. Heavy rains following application will increase the potential for crop injury. Use of organophosphates can increase crop injury from halosulfuron.  See the label for other precautions and a list of weeds controlled.

  • Preemergence: Can be applied as a preemergence after seeding and before crop emergence.
  • Postemergence: Use postemergence after dry beans reach 1-3 trifoliate leaf stage or snap/lima reach 2-4 trifolate leaf stage, but before the crop flowers.  Treatments applied when beans are younger increase the risk of crop injury. Application after the third trifoliate leaf increases the risk of split set. Add a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 0.25% v:v (1 qt/100 gal) spray solution. Will control yellow nutsedge and many broadleaf weeds. Will not control lambsquarters postemergence.

Postemergence to Weeds

bentazon (Basagran): PHI 30d, REI 48h, Group 6.  Used postemergence on actively growing weeds.  Rate varies based on weed species targeted (1 to 2 pt/A). See label for info.  Apply after the first trifoliate leaf (three leaflets) has fully expanded to avoid crop damage. An effective treatment in an emergency situation to control certain broadleaf weeds and fairly effective against yellow nutsedge when 4" to 6" tall.

pelargonic acid (Scythe):  PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 17. Use a 3 -10% solution (3 to 10 gallons per 100 gallons). Use a 3 to 5% solution for annual weeds, a 5 to 7% solution for biennial and perennial weeds, and 7 to 10% solution for maximum burndown. Delivery rate for boom applications should be 75 to 200 gals of spray solution per acre; complete coverage of weed foliage is essential. Use a DIRECTED/ SHIELDED SPRAY; contact with crop will cause injury. For hand-held equipment, spray to completely wet all weed foliage but not to the point of runoff. Repeat applications as necessary. Tank mixes are allowed with this product. See label for complete details.

Postemergence Grass herbicides

clethodim (Select Max): PHI 30d dry beans, PHI 21d for snap beans, REI 24h, Group 1.  Will control grass weeds only. Apply to actively growing grasses.  See label for rate selection.  For dry beans, multiple applications permitted of 9 to 32 oz/A per application, minimum 14-days between applications, not to exceed 64 oz/A per year.  For snap beans, only a single application of 9 to 16 oz/A is permitted.  Add 0.25% v:v nonionic surfactant (1 qt per 100 gal of spray).  Can also be used as a spot-spray by mixing 1/3-2/3% (0.44 to 0.85 oz per gallon) Select Max and 0.25% v:v nonionic surfactant (0.33 oz per gallon).  Spray to wet, but do not allow runoff of spray solution.

fluazifop (Fusilade DX): PHI 60d, REI 12h, Group 1.  Dry beans only.  For grass weed control only. Apply up to 24 oz/A.  See label to select rate based on grasses targeted for control. Allow for minimum 14-days between applications, and not to exceed 48 oz/A per year.  Apply to actively growing grasses (see product label for susceptible stage). Add either crop oil concentrate (0.5-1%, 0.5-1 gallon per 100 gallons of spray) or nonionic surfactant (0.25-0.5%, 1-2 qt per 100 gal of spray).

quizalofop (Assure II): PHI 30d dry beans, PHI 15d snap beans, REI 12h, Group 1. Apply to actively growing grasses. Rate based on target weed species, see label for grass growth stage and rate selection.  Multiple applications permitted.  Allow at least 7 days between applications.  Do not exceed 24 oz/A per season for dry beans and do not exceed 14 oz/A per season for snap beans.  Apply with either crop oil concentrate or non-ionic surfactant. Do not apply when crop or weeds are under drought stress.

sethoxydim (Poast): PHI 30d dry beans, PHI 15d snap beans, REI 12h, Group 1.  Controls grass weeds only.  Apply to actively growing grasses (see product label for susceptible stage).  Maximum 2.5 pt/A per application, minimum 14-days between applications.  Do not exceed 4 pt/A per year. Use with crop oil concentrate (2.0 pt/A) or methylated seed oil (1.5 pt/A).  Note that crop oil can cause injury under hot and humid conditions. Can also be used as a spot-spray by mixing 1-1.5% (1.3 to 1.9 oz per gallon) Poast and 1% v:v crop oil concentrate (1.3 oz per gallon).  Spray to wet, but do not allow runoff of spray solution.