Pea

Introduction

Pea (Pisum sativum) belongs to the legume family. It is a cool season crop that may be planted as early in the spring as the soil becomes tillable. Field pea is commonly grown as a cover crop, or, in more arid regions, for its smooth dried seeds used as food or feed crops. Garden pea is more commonly grown in New England for fresh market use. Garden peas contain higher sugar and lower starch contents than field peas and have wrinkled mature seeds. 

Types and Varieties

Three types of garden peas are in demand, all of which come in dwarf and tall vining forms:

  • English Pea - only the seed is eaten.
  • Snow or Edible-Podded Pea- the pod is eaten with undeveloped seeds.
  • Sugar Pea or Sugar Snap - both pod and seed are eaten.

 

Pea Varieties
English Pea Snow Pea
Strike (49) - F Oregon Giant (60)
PLS 534 (58, afila type) - F Avalanche (60)
Knight (62) - CW, PM, PEV Blizzard (61)
Progress #9 (62) Oregon Sugar Pod II (65) - CW, PM, PEV
Maxigolt (62)  
Green Arrow (65) Sugar Snap Pea
Lincoln (67) - CW Sugar Ann (52)
  Sugar Spring (58) - PM, PEV
  Sugar Snap (62)
  Super Sugar Snap (66) - PM, PLR
  SL3123 (70)

The number in parentheses is the approximate number of days to maturity from seeding.

Resistant or tolerant to: CW: common wilt, DM: downy mildew, F: Fusarium wilt, PEV: pea enation virus, PLR: pea leaf roll virus, PM: powdery mildew

Soil Fertility

Apply lime according to soil test results to maintain soil pH at 6.5-6.8.

Most research suggests that 20-30 lb of nitrogen per acre should be available at planting time, but that higher levels are not helpful. Peas can fix anywhere from 50-300 lbs. of nitrogen per acre, depending on plant density and availability of the appropriate species of Rhizobium bacteria. These bacteria, if present, live in root nodules of legumes, including peas, and convert atmospheric nitrogen into forms available to plants (nitrogen fixation). Nitrogen obtained in this manner is used more effectively than applied nitrogen. Therefore, plant vigor and production may be higher when the seed is inoculated with the appropriate species of Rhizobium bacterium. Inoculant can be purchased from most seed companies and should be listed in their catalogs. It is usually applied by mixing it with the seed at planting time. Pea inoculants are the same as those for vetches and lentils. Those used for alfalfa, beans or clovers will not work with peas. If peas or vetch have recently been grown in the field, inoculation may not be necessary. Note that many seed treatments may be toxic to the bacteria.

Nitrogen fixing can be slow in a cool, wet spring, so there may not be adequate nitrogen for high yields through nitrogen fixing alone. In this case, additional nitrogen may help to increase yields. However, applying excess nitrogen may reduce bacterial nitrogen fixation. If Rhizobium is not present, if leaching has occurred, or for early peas, sidedressing with an additional 25 lbs of nitrogen per acre may be beneficial.

Less nitrogen fertilizer will be needed if legume sod was plowed down or if manure was applied (see Table 1 and Table 7).

PLANT NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATION ACCORDING TO SOIL TEST RESULTS FOR PEA
PEA NITROGEN (N) LBS PER ACRE  PHOSPHORUS (P) LBS P2O5   PER ACRE          POTASSIUM (K) LBS K2O         PER ACRE
SOIL TEST RESULTS   VERY LOW LOW OPTIMUM ABOVE OPTIMUM VERY LOW LOW OPTIMUM ABOVE OPTIMUM
Broadcast/Planter 50-75 150 100 25-50 0 150 100 50 0
TOTAL RECOMMENDED 50-75 150 100 25-50 0 150 100 50 0

Planting

Seeding rates for peas vary considerably depending on the size of the seed. For fresh market, peas should be spaced 1.5-2" between seeds and 24-36" between rows at a seeding rate of 90-150 lb/A (about 1 lb per 100 feet of row).

For processing peas, seed 200-250 lb/A at 1" between plants and 7" between rows.

Field Culture

Pea seed will germinate well at soil temperatures as low as 50ºF, but germination is slow. Extended periods of cool, wet weather during the germination period may cause rotting of the seed. For this reason, fertile, well-drained, sandy soils are best for early plantings. Finer-textured soils with high moisture-holding capacities are preferred for late spring crops. The use of treated seed is helpful in overcoming the problem of seed decay.

Several root rot organisms that attack peas usually begin at the tips of the feeder roots and progress towards the main roots, or occasionally show on the stem slightly above ground level. Rotation can reduce problems with root rot in peas.

Peas that mature during hot, dry weather frequently show reduced yield and quality. If hot, dry conditions normally occur in your area, pea planting should be suspended in mid-May and resume in July for fall harvest. If hot, dry summer weather occurs for only short periods in your area, plantings can be made throughout the summer using heat-resistant varieties for mid-summer harvest.

Trellising

A trellis should be installed at the time of planting. Nylon mesh netting using twister bands to attach to 2"x 2" stakes makes a good trellis for tall varieties. At least a 6' high trellis is needed for all vining varieties. A double row can be planted for more efficient use of netting.

Harvest and Storage

Pods of shell peas should be rounded and still have a glossy sheen; if dull, they have passed their prime. Snap peas should also be glossy, and swelled, but not rounded. Pods of snow peas should be expanded to their fullest extent but still be flat. Peas should be stored at 32ºF with 95-98% relative humidity.

Disease Control

NOTE: For the disease control products listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (common name) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same active ingredient. Please see Table 25 and Fungicides and Bactericides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on products with the same active ingredients.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more detail.

Damping-Off, Seed Decay, Root Rot, and Stem Canker

Plant early in well-drained and well-fertilized soil. Use a 3- to 4-year rotation.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (DoubleNickel LCOG): 0.5 to 4.5 pt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4 h, Group 44. Disease suppression only. For improved control; mix or rotate with a chemical fungicide.

fludioxonil (Maxim 4FS): 0.8 to 0.16 oz/100 lb seed; REI 12h, Group 12. For protection against seedborne and soilborne fungi.

mefenoxam (Apron XL): 0.16 to 0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed; REI 48h, Group 4 . For Pythium damping-off.  Early season Phytophthora protection (0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed), and systemic downy mildew protection (1.28 fl oz/100 lb seed).

Streptomyces lydicus strain WYEC (Actinovate AGOG):  3.0 to 12.0 oz/A; Group NC. Can be applied to seed.

Trichoderma harzianun Rifai strain T-22: (Root Shield GranulesOG): 5.0 to 12.0 lb/A; Group NC. In-furrow at time of planting.

Rhizoctonia root rot and stem canker

Rhizoctonia stem canker caused by strains of the soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani is common throughout the world. The pathogen survives between crop seasons as sclerotia (survival structures), mycelium in the soil, or on or in infected plant debris.  It is spread in infested soil or plant debris by wind, rain, irrigation water, and machinery. When a soil becomes infested, it remains so indefinitely. Seedlings and young plants are highly susceptible to infection and disease severity is increased by low soil temperatures and soil compaction. Seed decay and damping off can be controlled by using high-quality seed with high germination and vigor, and by practices that encourage rapid germination and emergence.  Seed treatments are not effective against infections later in the season. The disease may be reduced by sowing seed as shallowly as possible in warm, moist soil. Land preparation that minimizes soil compaction and structural damage will lessen disease severity. Rotate crops with a cereal or pasture crop (avoid beets, beans, brassicas and potatoes which increase inoculum). Cover crops and other practices that increase organic matter and improve soil structure are recommended. Some brassica crops (mustard, rape) used as green manure have been reported to be disease suppressive. Avoid incorporating green manure immediately before planting and damaging roots by shallow cultivation. Fungicides can manage Rhizoctonia root rot on young seedlings if applied as a seed treatment or soil drench.

Insect Control

NOTES:  For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 26 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.

All tolerances for chlorpyrifos in food crops were revoked in 2022, therefore products containing chlorpyrifos (e.g. Lorsban) cannot be applied to any food crop and growers CAN NOT use up existing stock.

The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.

The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa zea) and Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Generally, these are late-season pests and are likely to only be a problem in fall peas. For more information, see Sweet Corn section.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, PHI 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. For FAW only. Use alone to control light populations, or first and second instar larvae. Add a contact insecticide to control more mature FAW larvae and higher populations. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/APHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Use alone to control light populations, or first and second instar larvae. Add a contact insecticide to control more mature FAW larvae and higher populations. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. Use high rate for fall armyworm.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 5-7.5 oz/A soil at planting, 3.5-7.5 oz/A foliar; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, PHI 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for armyworm on dry peas.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

indoxacarb (Avaunt): 3.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 22. Dry Southern peas only.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Use higher rates for large FAW larvae.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 16 oz/A for FAW, 10 to 16 oz/A for CEW; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use lower rates for FAW when plants are small or infestations are light. CEW suppression only.

spinetoram (Radiant SC): 4 to 8 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 4 to 6 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Cutworms

Caterpillars hide under the soil surface adjacent to the plant stem during the day and feed on stems after dark. For best results, make application between midnight and dawn while cutworms are feeding aboveground. Synthetic pyrethroids (Group 3A) may work best during cool spring weather. See cutworms in the Pepper and Tomato (Outdoor) sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 1.3 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, PHI 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 5 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, PHI 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.7 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3. Climbing cutworm only.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 0.77 to 1.28 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For variegated cutworm only.

spinosad (SeduceOG): 20 to 44 lb/A or 0.5 to1 lb/1000 sq ft.; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Spread bait on soil around plants.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 1.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum)

The pea aphid is light green with unusually long legs and cornicles (tailpipe-like projections). It is the primary aphid that attacks peas, fava beans and lentils. This aphid overwinters as an egg on alfalfa, vetch, and clover and moves to peas in the spring. Live female nymphs are produced throughout most of the year. Females take 12 days to mature and produce up to 150 nymphs. There are from 13 to 20 generations per year. Populations tend to be lower after cold, snowless winters or springs with persistent wet weather. Infestations during the bloom and early pod stages will reduce yield and crop quality by removing plant sap, impairing pod appearance, reducing seed fill, impairing nitrogen fixation and by the presence of aphid honeydew. Start monitoring when plants begin to flower. Action thresholds include 1 to 2 aphids per leaf, 2 to 3 aphids per stem tip or 9 to 13 per sweep, if a sweep net is being used. Harvest or spray nearby alfalfa, vetch or clover before winged adults are formed in the spring. Varieties differ in their susceptibility to pea aphid damage. Plant varieties less prone to high infestations and damage. There are many natural enemies (lady beetles, lacewings, flower fly larvae, predatory midges, Braconid wasps) that help reduce aphid numbers. Fungi will control high aphid populations during warm, humid or wet weather. A single systemic insecticide application will control this pest.

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A. Not for dry peas.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group UN.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, PHI 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 0.3 pt/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 2.9 to 5.8 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.2 oz/A foliar, 7 to 10.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 2.5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. Repeated applications or the addition of another insecticide may be necessary.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

malathion (Malathion 57 EC): 1.5 to 1.6 pt/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 100 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb seed; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic seed treatment. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage. For early-season protection from aphids.

Seedcorn Maggot (Delia platura)

See seedcorn maggot in the Bean section for more information.

Weed Control

NOTE:  For the herbicides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient along with preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), resistance management group number, and example of rates and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same active ingredient. However, not all products with the same active ingredient are registered for use in a crop. Always check the product label to be sure that the crop is listed before using. 

Stale Seedbed

See Stale Seedbed Technique in the Weed Management section.

glyphosate (Roundup Power Max): REI 12h, Group 9.

paraquat (Gramoxone SL 2.0*): restricted use. REI 12h, Group 22. Use 2 – 4 pts/A. Include a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v, or crop oil concentrate/methylated seed oil at 1.0% v/v (1 gal/100 gal) of the finished spray volume for maximum efficacy. May be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Applicators must complete an EPA-approved paraquat training listed on the following website https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-worker-safety/paraquat-dichloride-training-certified-applicators. The training must be completed a minimum of every three years.

pelargonic acid (Scythe): PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 17. Use a 3 -10% solution (3 to 10 gallons per 100 gallons).

Herbicides Used Preemergence, before weeds germinate

clomazone (Command 3ME): REI 12h, Group 13.  Apply 21.3 fl oz/A to the soil surface after seeding but prior to crop emergence. Place seed, or roots of the transplants, below the chemical barrier when planting. Will control annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds including common lambsquarters, velvetleaf, and jimsonweed. Some temporary crop injury (partial whitening of leaf or stem tissue) may be visible after crop emergence. Complete recovery will occur from minor early injury without affecting yield or earliness. See label for replanting restrictions.

linuron (Lorox DF): REI 24h, Group 5. Make a single application of up to 2 lbs/A after planting but prior to crop emergence. Use lower rates on coarse soils and higher rates on heavier soils.

s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum): REI 12h, Group 15.  English peas and dry peas. Apply either preplant incorporated or to the soil surface just after seeding. See label for specific rates on different soil types and organic matter content (1 to 2 pt/A). NOTE: If soil is cold and wet during pea germination/emergence, use of Dual Magnum can delay maturity and reduce yield. 

pendimethalin (Prowl H2O): REI 24h, Group 3. Apply 2 to 3 pt/A preplant and incorporate into the soil 2" to 3". Do not apply after seeding.  Rainfall or irrigation is required for activation.

trifluralin (Treflan HFP): REI 12h, Group 3. English peas. Incorporate 1 to 1.5 pt/A before planting. Select rate based on soil texture; see label for details.  Must be incorporated into the top 2 to 3 inches of the final seedbed within 24 hours of application.  Disc twice after spraying for satisfactory incorporation. See label for info on incorporation recommendations based on different equipment and single pass incorporation. Especially effective for annual grass.

Herbicides Used Pre- and Postemergence

imazethapyr (Pursuit): PHI 30d, REI 4h, Group 2. English peas and dry peas.  Apply up to 3 oz/A as a preplant incorporated (with 1 week of planting) or as a preemergence up to 3 days after planting. 

Can also be used early Postemergence:  Apply to dry peas and English pea when peas are 3” tall but before 5 nodes and before flowering. Nonionic surfactant must be added to the spray solution for post emergence use.

Herbicides Used Postemergence, after weeds germinate

bentazon (Basagran): PHI 10d, REI 48h, Group 6.  Used postemergence on actively growing weeds.  Rate varies based on weed species targeted (1 to 2 pt/A). Peas are tolerant to after 3 pairs of leaves (or 4 nodes) are present.  Pea injury such as yellowing, bronzing, speckling or burning of leaves may occur under certain conditions.  Temporary injury is generally outgrown without delay of podset, maturity or reducing yields. An effective treatment in an emergency situation to control certain broadleaf weeds and fairly effective against yellow nutsedge when 4" to 6" tall.  Do not apply when peas are in bloom or under stress from root rot.  Do not add oil for use on peas.

carfentrazone (Aim EC): REI 12h, Group 14.  Aim is a burndown herbicide and will injure any foliage it comes into contact with. Apply Aim to row middles of emerged crops with hooded sprayers to control emerged weeds, including crops grown on mulch or plastic.  Prevent any spray from contacting the crop, or injury will occur.  For best results, make application to actively growing weeds up to 4 inches tall and rosettes less than 3 inches across. Good coverage is essential for good control.  Apply up to 2 oz/A per application, and do not exceed a total of 6.1 oz/ per season. 

clethodim (Select Max): PHI 21d, 24hr REI, Group 1.  Will control grass weeds only. Apply to actively growing grasses.  See label for rate selection.  A single application of 9 to 16 oz/A is permitted.  Apply before bloom. Add 0.25% v:v nonionic surfactant (1 qt per 100 gal of spray).  Can also be used as a spot-spray by mixing 1/3-2/3% (0.44 to 0.85 oz per gallon) Select Max and 0.25% v:v nonionic surfactant (0.33 oz per gallon).  Spray to wet, but do not allow runoff of spray solution.

pelargonic acid (Scythe):  PHI 1d, REI 12h, Group 17. Use a 3 -10% solution (3 to 10 gallons per 100 gallons). Use a 3 to 5% solution for annual weeds, a 5 to 7% solution for biennial and perennial weeds, and 7 to 10% solution for maximum burndown. Delivery rate for boom applications should be 75 to 200 gals of spray solution per acre; complete coverage of weed foliage is essential. Use a DIRECTED/ SHIELDED SPRAY; contact with crop will cause injury. For hand-held equipment, spray to completely wet all weed foliage but not to the point of runoff. Repeat applications as necessary. Tank mixes are allowed with this product. See label for complete details.

quizalofop (Assure II): PHI 60d dry peas, PHI 30d succulent peas, REI 12h, Group 1. Apply to actively growing grasses. Rate based on target weed species, see label for grass growth stage and rate selection.  Multiple applications permitted.  Allow at least 7 days between applications.  Do not exceed 14 oz/A per season.  Apply with either crop oil concentrate or non-ionic surfactant. Do not apply when crop or weeds are under drought stress.

sethoxydim (Poast): PHI 30d dry peas, PHI 15d succulent peas, REI 12h, Group 1.  Controls grass weeds only.  Apply to actively growing grasses (see product label for susceptible stage).  Maximum 2.5 pt/A per application, minimum 14-days between applications.  Do not exceed 4 pt/A per year. Use with crop oil concentrate (2.0 pt/A) or methylated seed oil (1.5 pt/A).  Note that crop oil can cause injury under hot and humid conditions. Can also be used as a spot-spray by mixing 1-1.5% (1.3 to 1.9 oz per gallon) Poast and 1% v:v crop oil concentrate (1.3 oz per gallon).  Spray to wet, but do not allow runoff of spray solution.