Biorational and Organic Pesticides

Pesticides vary in their toxicity to people and to non-target organisms, and in their potential ecological impact. Pest control materials that are relatively non-toxic to people with few environmental side-effects are called “biorational” pesticides in this Guide. Biorational pesticides mostly include the following categories further defined in this section: biopesticide, organic pesticide, minimum-risk pesticide, and biological control. Federal law governs pesticide registration through the EPA, and materials derived from living things are defined as “biopesticides”. Organic production is regulated through the USDA National Organic Program which defines what inputs are allowed for pest management. “Organic” and “biopesticide” are partially overlapping categories, and each is defined by specific criteria that are unique. “Minimum risk pesticide” is another category that is defined by EPA; these are exempt from federal registration. “Biological control” describes living organisms that suppress pests. Some biological controls are naturally occurring, some are insects purchased by farmers for pest control, and some are microbes formulated for sale as biopesticides.

All tables in this section include products that are registered as pesticides as well as some that are exempt from EPA registration. None are federally restricted-use products. Most have low dermal and oral LD50 values and they carry the minimum EPA signal word of “Caution”. However, some organic pesticides such as copper sulfate have a high dermal and oral LD50 value and carry the EPA signal word “Danger” on their label.

Types of Biorational Pesticides

Botanicals are plant-derived materials such as pyrethrin, azadiractin, and extracts of plants such as Chenopodium ambrosioides and Swinglea glutinosa. Plant-derived oils such as neem oil, canola oil, and sesame oil are also included in this group. Botanicals are generally short-lived in the environment, as they are broken down rapidly in the presence of light and air. Products generally have low mammalian toxicity and a broad spectrum of activity. Many botanicals are considered minimum risk pesticides and are exempt from registration by EPA (see below).

Microbial pesticides are formulated from living microorganisms and/or their by-products. Microbial insecticides tend to be selective, so specific pests may be controlled with little or no effect on non-target organisms, while most microbial disease control products have a wider spectrum of activity. Microbial insecticides may be derived from bacteria (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis, spinetoram and spinosad, Chromobacterium subtsugae), virus (e.g. nuclear polyhedrosis virus of corn earworm) or fungi (e.g. Beauvaria bassiana).  Microbial disease control products are living organisms, including beneficial fungi and bacteria. Examples of microbial disease control organisms are the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. While these active ingredients are generally approved for organic production (OMRI listed) because of their natural origin, certain formulated products are prohibited because the inert ingredients or procedures used in making the product are prohibited.

Minerals. Some pesticides made from minerals, mined from the earth and minimally processed, are allowed in organic production.  Kaolin clay, copper hydroxide, and iron phosphate are examples (see Table 21, page 76, and Table 23, page 79).

Synthetics. Minerals and other natural materials that are heated, chemically reacted, or mixed with surfactants may be considered synthetics. Synthetics also include insect growth regulators (IGR), which interrupt or inhibit the life cycle of a pest. They may also work by strengthening plant defenses. National organic standards include some allowed synthetics.

Biopesticides

Biopesticides, as defined by EPA, are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. As of April 2016, there are 299 registered biopesticide active ingredients and 1401 active biopesticide product registrations. EPA generally requires less data to register a biopesticide than to register a conventional pesticide, thus the registration process is faster.  Categories of biopesticides include:

  • Microbial pesticides, in which a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) is the active ingredient
  • Plant-Incorporated-Protectants (PIPs), in which pesticidal substances are produced by crop plants as a result of genetic material being added to the plant (e.g., Bt insecticidal protein)
  • Biochemical pesticides, which are naturally occurring substances that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms, such as sex pheromones that interfere with mating and scented plant extracts that attract insect pests to traps. With plant-incorporated protectants, the toxin and its genetic material, but not the plant itself, are regulated by EPA.

Biopesticides generally fit well into an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, which relies on monitoring for early detection of pests and emphasizes the use of selective products that protect crops while minimizing negative effects on water, air and soil, and on pollinators and beneficial insects.  The purpose of this section is to bring these types of products together to help growers make decisions about pesticides and biological controls to use on their farm.

Pesticides in Organic Production

The USDA National Organic Program allows application of biological, botanical, or mineral inputs, when cultural practices are insufficient to prevent or control crop pests, weeds, and diseases. Most of these are non-synthetic and/or minimally-processed.

NOTE: not all biopesticides are labeled for use in certified organic agriculture. The grower is responsible for determining whether materials are allowed under organic standards.  Sometimes this may be a challenge because some materials labeled as organic by the manufacturer may not actually be allowed by the USDA National Organic Program.  The Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) is recognized by the National Organic Program as an organic material review organization.  It lists products it finds suitable for certified organic production.  These products are generally allowed without restriction, but some are regulated and subject to restrictions. In some cases, OMRI notes that certain formulations of a product are permitted and others are not. The list of substances approved by OMRI is subject to change.

Be sure to check with your certifier in advance to be certain that the materials and practices you plan to use are approved by your certifier, and that you understand any restrictions on use. For the most up-to-date OMRI list, visit the OMRI web site at: www.omri.org. When mentioned in tables or in crop chapters, this Guide designates approved organic materials with a superscript OG ( OG ), which means they were "OMRI listed" at the time of publication (June 2022).

Minimum risk (exempt) pesticides

These are a special class of pesticides that are not subject to federal registration requirements because their ingredients, both active and inert, are demonstrably safe for the intended use. This exemption falls under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Of the New England states, CT, ME, NH, RI and VT all require state registrations for these products while MA allows exemption for all products that meet the minimum risk criteria and are on the federal 25(b) list.  For more information, please contact your state's pesticide registration office (see Pesticide Safety and Use, page 67). The list of 25(b) exempt materials includes the following: corn gluten meal; sodium chloride; corn, linseed, sesame, soybean, and cottonseed oil; garlic and garlic oil; and essential oils including rosemary, mint, thyme, geranium, lemongrass, cinnamon and rosemary. Some pest control products listed in this guide meet the criteria for exemption and do not have EPA pesticide registration or a pesticide label. More on this class of pesticides can be found at: https://www.epa.gov/minimum-risk-pesticides.

Biological Insect Control

Biological control is taking place in vegetable crops all the time, because native and naturalized populations of natural enemies overwinter on the farm and move into crops to feed on or lay their eggs into pest insects. Predators consume several insects over the course of their development. Parasites (also called parasitoids) lay eggs in their host insect, which hatch into larvae that feed internally, develop, and kill the host. Pathogens invade the body of the host insect. The impact of beneficial insects is often underestimated because it is easy to overlook and difficult to measure. Beneficial insects may be killed by broad-spectrum insecticides, and pest outbreaks can occur as a result. Conservation of beneficials by use of selective insecticides when pests exceed threshold levels is recommended wherever practical.

The release of commercially produced beneficials can also aid in suppressing pests. These tend to be more successful in greenhouses than in the field, but there are several instances where releases in the field have been proven to suppress or completely control key pests. Trichogramma are tiny wasps that lay their eggs inside the eggs of insects, and wasp larvae develop inside, killing the egg. Several species are commercially available, but the most useful in vegetable crops are T. pretiosum for caterpillar eggs and T. ostriniae against European corn borer in sweet corn and pepper. Releases should be timed to coincide with egg laying. See Table 22 (page 78) for information about biological controls for the field, and also Biological Control for Insects and Mites in the Vegetable Transplants section.

Biological Disease Control

Biological disease control products (fungicides, bactericides, and nematicides) fall into the same classes as the insecticides. Botanicals, minerals, and synthetics are listed in Table 23 (page 79). Sulfur, potassium bicarbonate, phosphites, and copper compounds are examples of minerals or synthetics that can control fungal and bacterial diseases. Not all of these products are OMRI listed; be sure to check with your state certifying authority for more information on these materials. Botanicals such as rosemary oil, soybean oil, or garlic extracts also appear in this table and are generally approved for use in organic production by OMRI. Products listed in Table 23 (page 79) require thorough coverage, application at the first signs of disease, and frequently repeated dosages to be effective. For products that may be used in vegetable transplant production, see Table 19 (page 54).

Microbial products are listed in Table 24 and are all living organisms which require specialized storage and application procedures. The table includes beneficial fungi and bacteria such as Streptomyces, Gliocladium, and Trichoderma, which compete with plant pathogens, produce toxic metabolites, or actively parasitize pathogens. Their effectiveness in university research trials has been inconsistent because of variations in environmental conditions and disease pressure. Microbial disease control products perform best in a greenhouse environment where they can establish and flourish. Control of plant pathogenic organisms on the phylloplane (leaf surface) is especially problematic, as the competing organisms must establish themselves and can fail due to desiccation and exposure to sunlight. These materials have a limited shelf life, must be protected from temperature extremes, and correctly applied (plenty of water and under the correct environmental conditions) for effectiveness.

 

Table 21: Biorational and Selective Insecticides and Miticides

This table includes products that are registered as pesticides as well as some that are exempt from EPA registration.  Most have low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects. None are federally restricted-use products. Most have dermal and oral LD50 values over 2,000 mg/kg (see Table 27 and 28 for LD50 values for insecticides and fungicides). Selective insecticides have efficacy on specific insect groups, or a specific life stage, and are therefore safe for non-target beneficial insects.

Active Ingredients Trade Name Target Pests Comments
azadiractin Amazin Plus 1.2%MEOG; Aza-DirectOG; AzaGuardOG, Azatin OOG; XL; Azatrol ECOG; AzeraOG(M); Ecozin Plus 1.2%MEOG; Molt-XOG; Neemix 4.5OG, Ornazin 3%EC Aphids, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies, beetles, and other insects An insect growth regulator extracted from the seeds of the neem tree. works by contact or ingestion against immature stages, and has antifeedant properties.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai

XentariOG

Caterpillars, as listed for Bt kurstaki, as well as cross-striped cabbageworm, armyworms, cutworm

Use in rotation with Bt kurstaki products to prevent resistance. May be used in greenhouse or field.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Gnatrol WDGOG Fungus gnats For use in greenhouse.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki CoStarOG; DeliverOG; Dipel ES, Dipel DFOG; Javelin WGOG Many caterpillars, including cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, European corn borer, hornworm Must be ingested. Apply when caterpillars are actively feeding. Safe on beneficial insects. For some species, more effective on smaller larvae.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain SA-10 TridentOG Colorado potato beetle For use on potato, tomato, and eggplant. Must be ingested. (Trident currently unavailable due to formulation and shipping issues)
buprofezin

Talus 70DF

Leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, whiteflies Insect growth regulator.
Burkholderia spp. (heat-killed) Strain A396 and spent fermentation media Venerate XCOG, Majestene OG Caterpillars, cutworms, aphids, mites, thrips, whiteflies Works by contact and ingestion to disrupt insect exoskeletons and interfere with molting.
capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil Captiva Caterpillars, mites, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies Has anti-feedant, anti-egg laying, and irritant activity, and weakens cuticles of immature stages of insect and mite pests.

Chenopodium ambrosioides extract

Requiem

Aphids, whiteflies, thrips, leafminer, mites

Contact insecticide/acaricide. Can be applied for ovicidal control. Start when populations are at threshold. Compatible with beneficial insects.

chlorantraniliprole Coragen Caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, leafminers May be used as soil or transplant water treatment at planting, in drip or as foliar. Avoid run-off in surface waters. Non-toxic to bees.
Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 GrandevoOG Caterpillars, aphids, whiteflies, mites, leafhoppers, thrips A selective biological insecticide/miticide containing fermentation solids. Works as a stomach poison upon ingestion. No systemic activity. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds.
clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil Triact 70OG, TrilogyOG Primarily labeled for (but not limited to) mite control Can be used to control mites. For best results use when population levels are low to prevent build-up. Repeat applications are needed.

clove oil, thyme oil and cinnamon oil

Ecotrol G2OG

Root maggots, wireworm, cutworm, Symphylans

Soil-incorporated volatile plant oils on a corn cob carrier, applied before, during or after planting. Exempt from registration and reporting under Federal EPA standards. 

cryolite Prokil Cryolite 96 Colorado potato beetle (larvae only), cucumber beetle, flea beetle, cutworms, some caterpillars Stomach poison, must be ingested. Sodium aluminofluoride mineral, applied as spray or dust. Reapply to cover new growth. May cause extensive wear of nozzles.
cyromazine Trigard Leafminer, Colorado potato beetle An insect growth regulator.
diflubenzuron Dimilin Armyworms, pepper weevils A selective insect growth regulator that disrupts the molting process of insect larvae.
etoxazole Zeal Mites A mite growth regulator that works as an ovicide and larvicide.
flonicamid Beleaf Aphids, plant bugs, whiteflies A pyridinecarboxamide that works by contact and ingestion. Feeding stops rapidly and mortality will follow.
flubendiamide (Note: All flubendiamide registrations were canceled by the EPA in 2016. Growers may use up existing stock.) Belt SC  Caterpillars including armyworms, loopers, hornworm, corn earworm,  European corn borer A diamide, active by insect larval ingestion, leading to a rapid cessation of feeding followed by death. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on Brassicas and turnip greens, leafy vegetables, sweet corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, and legumes to control caterpillars.
flupyradifurone Sivanto Aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies, Colorado potato beetles, squash bugs A broad-spectrum insecticide in a new class of chemistries, the Butenolides. Acropetally systemic, and translaminar. No toxicity to bees in lab tests.
insecticidal soap (Potassium salts of fatty acids) Des-XOG, M-PedeOG Aphids, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies Works on contact. Can be phytotoxic to some crops, test on small plot. Avoid treatment when plants are stressed. May also harm some beneficials. Also active against powdery mildews.
iron phosphate Sluggo: Snail and Slug BaitOG Snails, slugs Bait which causes feeding to cease. Death occurs over 3-5 days. Exempt from tolerance and has a zero hour re-entry interval due to low toxicity to people and wildlife.
kaolin Surround WPOG Flea beetle, striped cucumber beetle, leafhopper, thrips Interferes with insects' ability to recognize their host; particles cling to cuticle. Plant leaves turn white but growth is not inhibited. Reapply after heavy rain. To avoid lumps in mixing, form a slurry, then dilute. Maintain agitation.
metaldehyde Deadline Bullets Slugs, snails A toxic bait. Not for direct application to or contamination of edible portions of the plant; to be applied as a band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Long-lasting; resistant to rain and watering.
methoxyfenozide Intrepid Many species of caterpillars Mimics molting hormone; causes premature molt and death.
novaluron Rimon Caterpillars, beetles, leafminers, squash bugs, thrips, whiteflies An insect growth regulator for use on immature stages.
petroleum oil (mineral, parrafinic oils) JMS Stylet Oil, Organic JMS Stylet OilOG, Suffoil XOG aphids, leafminers, beetle larvae, mites, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies A horticultural oil (80% petroleum oil) insecticide, miticide and fungicide. Kills eggs, larvae and nymphs of insects and mites and adults of soft-bodied insects through suffocation. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a variety of crops. Also labeled for certain diseases.
pymetrozine Fulfill Aphids Works by contact and ingestion, translaminar with long residual.
pyrethrin PyGanic EC5.0IIOG, PyGanic EC1.4OG Asparagus beetle, blister beetle, cucumber beetle, flea beetles, Mexican bean beetle, potato leafhopper, many caterpillars, aphids, stink bugs Botanical insecticide with broad-spectrum activity. Contact toxin with rapid knockdown but short period of activity (non-persistent). Highly toxic to fish. Derived from a chrysanthemum species cultivated in Africa. Some formulations are approved for organic crops.
pyriproxyfen Esteem, Distance IGR, Knack Thrips, whiteflies shoreflies, fungus gnats Label may include greenhouse or field use. An insect growth regulator that suppresses development of embryo within the egg, immature, and pupal stages of the insect. No activity against adult insects.

rosemary oil, peppermint oil, other essential plant oils

Ecotrol PlusOG

Aphids, beetles, bugs, early stages of caterpillars, leafminers, mites, thrips

Works on contact as an insecticide and miticide. Greenhouse and field use. Thorough coverage is needed. Exempt from registration under Federal EPA standards.

soybean oil

Golden Pest Spray OilOG, Captiva

Primarily soft-bodied insects A soybean-derived horticultural oil that works as a contact insecticide, as well as a feeding and oviposition deterrent. Exempt from registration under Federal EPA standards.

spinetoram

Radiant

See spinosad, below.

A second-generation spinosyn, similar to spinosad, below.

spinosad Blackhawk, EntrustOG, Seduce Insect BaitOG, GF-120 NaturalyteOG Caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, asparagus beetle, flea beetle, leafminers, thrips. Baits labeled for cutworms, earwigs (Seduce) or fruit flies (GF-120) Acts both as a contact and stomach toxin. Derived from soil bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Non-disruptive to most predator insect species and some parasites. Rotate with other selective biorationals to prevent resistance. 
spiromesifen Oberon Whiteflies, nymphs & pupae, mites Contact insecticide and miticide.
sulfur Microthiol DisperssOG Mites Micronized wettable sulfur, also labeled as a fungicide.
tebufenozide Confirm Caterpillars Selective insect growth regulator.
The symbol OG indicates a pesticide that has been listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as compliant with the National Organic Standards and therefore approved for use in organic production.

 

Table 22: Biological Controls for Insect Pests

The products and living organisms listed in this table suppress pests on vegetable farms. Some biological controls are naturally occurring, some are insects purchased by farmers for pest control, and some are microbes formulated for sale as biopesticides.  Most are exempt from EPA registration, and most are allowable for organic production.

Part 1. Established beneficial insects that live on New England farms

Scientific name Common Name Target Pests Comments
Chrysopa and Chrysoperla spp. Green lacewings Aphids, thrips, mites, whiteflies, leafhoppers, small caterpillars, insect eggs Larvae feed voraciously on many small insect pests. Common throughout the US, and available commercially.
Coleomegilla maculata Twelve-spotted ladybeetle Aphids, small caterpillars, small beetle larvae, insect eggs Native to North America. Both adults and larvae are predators. Wide range of prey and of crops and habitats. Feeds on newly hatched larvae as well as insect eggs. Also eats pollen.
Cotesia congregatus Braconid wasp Tomato hornworm Parasitic wasp that lays eggs in hornworm caterpillars.
Cotesia rubecula Braconid wasp Imported cabbageworm (ICW) Parasitic wasp that lays eggs in small ICW. Exits and spins oval, white cocoon. Introduced to New England in 1988; now well established.
Harmonia axyridis Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Aphids Adults have many variable markings. Both adults and larvae are predators. Renowned for invading homes in fall. May be a pest of grapes. Introduced to North America; widespread range.
Orius insidiosus Insidious flower bug Aphids Commonly found in corn. Small (3 mm).
Podisus maculiventris Spined soldier bug Beetle larvae, caterpillars, insect eggs, aphids Prey includes Colorado potato beetle. Both adults and nymphs are predators. Uses piercing sucking mouthparts to feed on soft-bodied insects.
Syrphid species Syrphid fly larva (immature of hover fly) Aphids, small caterpillars Adult hover flies (Syrphids) mimic bees and feed in flowers. Immatures are voracious aphid predators; legless, cream or brown in color, found in aphid colonies.

Part 2: Biological control organisms, released or applied to crops

Scientific name Common Name Target Pests Comments
Beauvaria bassiana Strain GHA Mycotrol ESO, Botanigard Aphids, whiteflies, thrips, Colorado potato beetle This fungus penetrates the insect cuticle, fills its body, kills it, and releases more spores. Apply in the evening and target coverage of lower leaves, as spores are inactivated by sunlight. Use preventatively based on monitoring, before pests reach high levels. Can be tank mixed with other microbials for Colorado potato beetle.

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus)

PFR-97OG, PreferalOG aphids, mites, thrips, whiteflies, leafminers, rootworms, wireworms, grubs, caterpillars A naturally-occurring fungus that penetrates the cuticle of insect pests.
Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52 Met 52EC thrips, whiteflies, mites Composed of spores of a naturally occurring insect pathogenic fungus. Spores attach to the insect and hyphae penetrate the exoskeleton, growing inside and causing death in 3 to 7 days. Labeled for use as a foliar spray or soil drench on field and greenhouse onions to control thrips, and on field and greenhouse celery, lettuce, spinach, peppers, and tomatoes to control thrips, whiteflies, and mites. Persistence will generally be higher when incorporated into soil, but may be effective for a few months even in foliar applications.
Pediobius faveolatus No common name Mexican bean beetle Small parasitic wasp of the Eulophid family, which attacks larvae of the Mexican bean beetle. Releases should be timed to coincide with egg hatch because wasps lay eggs in young larvae, which are then killed and form a pupal case, or 'mummy' from which a new adult wasp will emerge.
Steinernema and Heterorhabditis species Beneficial nematodes Cutworms, white grubs, wireworms, maggots, beetle larvae, soil-dwelling adult insects Nematodes are very small roundworms. Some species are plant pathogens, but some attack soil-dwelling insects and two in particular (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) have been mass-reared for commercial use. These seek out and penetrate their host insects, multiply within the host and kill it. They are most likely to be effective against the soil-dwelling immature stages of susceptible hosts. Nematodes require moist soil conditions to survive.
Trichogramma ostriniae No common name European corn borer

Tiny parasitic wasp that oviposits in the eggs of European corn borer. Its larvae grow and pupate in the eggs, preventing borer hatch. Start release when ECB flight begins. In sweet corn, release at 30 to 60k per acre per week, for 2 to 3 weeks per block. In pepper, release 90 to 120k per acre per week over 4 weeks. Reproduces in season but does not overwinter. Available from IPM Laboratories, Locke, NY.

Trichogramma pretiosum No common name Caterpillar eggs May be used in Brassica crops and other crops with caterpillar pests.

 

Table 23: Biorational and Organic Disease Control Materials

 The products in this table are botanical, mineral, and synthetic biorational pesticides labeled for disease control in vegetable crops. The symbol OG  indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. 

Active Ingredient and Trade Name Target Pests Labeled Crops Comments/material type
Acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard 50 WG) Downy mildews, bacterial diseases, rusts Crucifers, tomato, spinach Synthetic, Plant defense activator.
Cottonseed Oil, Corn Oil, Garlic Oil (Mildew CureOG) Powdery mildew Most crops Botanical

Copper sulfate (Basic Copper 53OG)

Many bacterial and fungal diseases

Most crops

Mineral

Copper hydroxide (Champ WGOG) Bacterial blight, black rot (Xanthomonas), downy mildew, powdery mildew, Anthracnose, Phompsis, late blight, Botrytis, leaf spots Most crops Mineral
Cuprous oxide (Nordox 75 WGOG) Bacterial blight, black rot (Xanthomonas), downy mildew, powdery mildew, Anthracnose, Phomopsis, late blight, Botrytis, leaf spots Most crops Mineral
Hydrogen dioxide  (OxiDate 2.0OG) Alternaria, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium Wilt, Sclerotinia, Anthracnose, bacterial blight, Botrytis, powdery mildew, rust Beans, cucurbits, celery, crucifers, leafy vegetables tomato, pepper, onions, potato, herbs, root crops Synthetic. Contact activity only
Kaolin (Surround WPOG) Powdery mildew, sunburn and heat stress. All crops Mineral.
Neem Oil (TrilogyOG, Triact 70OG) Anthracnose, Botrytis, downy mildew, powdery mildew, scabs, rusts, leaf spots and blights Most crops Botanical

Oils, Petroleum based (JMS Stylet-OilOG, CivitasOG, & Suffoil-XOG)

Alternaria, Gummy Stem blight, Powdery mildew, Rust

Most crops

Synthetic and natural oils

Potassium Bicarbonate (KaligreenOG, MilStopOG) Alternaria, Anthracnose, Botrytis, downy mildew, Fusarium, Leaf spots, Phytophthora, powdery mildew Beans, crucifers, cucurbits, eggplant, lettuce, peppers, potato, tomato, spinach, wheat Synthetic, Biopesticide, Armicarb 100 is not OMRI listed, but MilStop and Kaligreen are.
Potassium Phosphite (Helena ProPhyt) Downy mildews, Phytophthora species, Pythium species Cucurbits, crucifers, onion, potato, tomato, lettuce, spinach Mineral, Systemic. Drench at transplant.
Mono- and dibasic sodium, potassium, and ammonium phosphites (Phostrol) Downy mildews, Phytophthora species, Pythium species Most crops Synthetic, Use caution when using in a tank mix
Monopotassium phosphate (Nutrol) Powdery Mildew Cucurbits, peppers, and tomatoes Synthetic, Can be used in greenhouse on some crops

Potassium silicate (Sil-MATRIX)

Powdery Mildew, Leaf spots

Most crops

Mineral, Broad spectrum preventive fungicide

Reynoutria sachaliensis Extract (RegaliaOG)

Powdery Mildew, Botrytis,  Leaf spots, Bacterial spot, speck, and canker

Cucurbits, peppers, lettuce, tomato, strawberry, grapes

Botanical, Plant defense activator. Use caution in tank mix.OMRI listed.

Rosemary and Clove Oils (Phyta-Guard EC) Powdery Mildews, bacterial spot Most crops Botanical

Rosemary, Clove, and Thyme Oils (Sporan EC)

Bacterial Spot, Early Blight, Gray Mold, Late Blight, Powdery mildew, Downy mildew

Most crops

Botanical

Rosemary, Thyme, and Clove Oil (SporatecOG) Anthracnose, Botrytis, downy mildew, powdery mildew, leaf spots, rusts, bacterial spot Most crops Botanical

Streptomycin Sulfate (Agri-Mycin 17)

Bacterial diseases Celery, peppers, tomato, potato Biological anti-biotic

Sesame Oil (OrganocideOG)

Powdery Mildew, Leaf spots

Most crops

Botanical
Sulfur (Micro SulfOG, Microthiol DisperssOG, Kumulus DFOG) Powdery mildew, leaf spots Most crops Mineral

 

Table 24: Microbial Disease Control Products

The materials listed in this table are formulated from living microorganisms and/or their byproducts. The symbol OG  indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. 

Trade name Active ingredient Target Diseases Labeled crops Comments
Actinovate AGOG Streptomyces lydicus Downy mildew, powdery mildew, Botrytis, Sclerotinia spp., Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia Greenhouse use only for vegetable crops Seed and soil treatment (drench/in-furrow), greenhouse foliar sprays
Bio-Save 10 LPOG Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC-10 Fusarium and Helminthosporium storage rots Potato Post-harvest application
Bio-TamOG

Trichoderma asperellum & Trichoderma gamsii

 Fusarium. Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Phytophthora, Sclerotinia, Sclerotium, Verticillium Corn, cole crops, fruiting vegetables, cucurbits, leafy vegetables, legumes, root, tuber, and corm vegetables, herbs, onions

Soil treatment

 

Companion Liquid (& WP) Biological FungicideOG

Bacillus subtilis GB03

Anthracnose, Botrytis, bacterial diseases,  Powdery mildew, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Leaf spots

All crops

Soil treatment, hydroponics, seed treatment

CeaseOG

Bacillus subtilis QST 713 strain

Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium

Most crops

Soil drench

OMRI listed, greenhouse use

 

Contans WGOG Coniothyrium minitans Strain CON/M/91-08 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Sclerotinia minor
Most crops (Bayer formula NOT labeled for tomato) Soil treatment
 
DiTera DFOG Myrothecium verrucaria Strain AARC-0255 Nematodes Celery, lettuce, spinach, crucifers  
Double NickelOG Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Botrytis, Alternaria, fungal leaf spots & blights, powdery mildew, downy mildew, soilborne pathogens: Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Fusarium, Sclerotinia, (suppression only: rust, late blight, early blight),
 
Cucurbits, fruiting and leafy vegetables, brassicas, asparagus, bulbs, legumes/beans, sweet corn & popcorn, herbs  
MycostopOG Streptomyces griseoviridis Strain K61 Fusarium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Botrytis, Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia Beans, lettuce, carrots, crucifers, onions, spinach, tomato, root crops, herbs Seed or soil treatment
 
ObtegoOG

Trichoderma asperellum ICC 012

Trichoderma gamsii ICC 080

Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia Cucurbits, leafy vegetables, fruiting vegetables, herbs  

Prestop WPOG

PVentOG

Gliocladium catenulatum Strain Ji1446

Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Verticillium, Botrytis

Most crops. See label for crops registered for incorporated or drench treatment only.

 

RhapsodyOG Bacillus subtilis QST 713 Alternaria, bacterial blight(Xanthomonas), downy mildew, powdery mildew, Sclerotinia spp., Botrytis, rust, Pytophthora infestans Broccoli, carrot, lettuce, onion, pepper, tomato, herbs

Greenhouse Use.

RootShieldOG Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Strain KRL-AG2 Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Cylindrocladium, Thielaviopsis Eggplant, pepper, tomato, lettuce, crucifers, cucurbits, herbs, bulb crops

In-furrow treatment, greenhouse use

RootShield PlusOG Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Strain T-22 & T. viriens Strain G-41 Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Cylindrocladium, Thielaviopsis Eggplant, pepper, tomato, lettuce, crucifers, cucurbits, herbs, bulb crops soilborne diseases, greenhouse use

Serenade OptiOG, Serenade ASOOG

Bacillus subtilis QST 713 Alternaria, Anthracnose, Botrytis, downy mildew, powdery mildew, rust, Helminthosporium diseases, Didymella, Phoma, Bacterial diseases Most crops

Can also be used for postharvest disease protection

SonataOG Bacillus pumilis QST 2808 Alternaria, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Rust Most crops  
StargusOG Bacillus amyloliquefaciens F727 Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, downy mildew, Botrytis Most crops  
Subtilex NG Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, Powdery mildew Pepper, tomato, eggplant, cucurbits For greenhouse use only.

Taegro 2OG

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB24 Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Sclerotinia, Pythium, Phytophthora, leaf spots, Powdery mildew Fruiting vegetables, cucurbits, leafy vegetables In-furrow, transplant drench, basal spray for primarily soilborne diseases. 
Triathlon BAOG Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D747 Botrytis, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Sclerotinia, Pythium, Phytophthora, leaf spots, powdery mildew, downy mildew Most crops