Insect Management

A successful insect management program can best be accomplished by combining IPM techniques, such as accurate pest identification, scouting, monitoring, and action thresholds, with biological and preventative control practices and selective insecticide applications if needed.

Use scouting and monitoring techniques to help assess and quantify insect populations over time.

Insecticides should be used only when action thresholds have been exceeded or damaging insect populations are present. Action thresholds help minimize insecticide use and crop damage. Avoid making routine insecticide applications to crops without evidence of insect activity and damage. All insects have natural enemies which, if conserved, can help regulate pest populations. Whenever possible, use selective insecticides that spare beneficial organisms and target the pest you wish to control. Broad-spectrum insecticides should be used as a last resort. All insecticide applications should be made with ample water and with nozzles directed so that they provide thorough coverage of the plant parts where insects hide. Alternate between insecticide classes or families to help manage insect resistance and extend the life of available products.

Insect Identification

Become familiar with the biology and life-cycle of the major insect pests that attack crops on an annual basis. Understanding some basic insect biology often reveals when the pest is most vulnerable to control measures and helps lead to successful management efforts. Insects usually have either a simple life-cycle, where they grow from egg to nymph to adult, or a slightly more complex cycle, where they mature from egg to larva and then go through metamorphosis in the pupal stage before becoming adults. Insects damage plants either as nymphs/larvae or as adults, or in both immature and adult stages. Learn to recognize the important life-stages of major insect pests, and to  recognize the crop injury or damage they produce to help determine when control efforts are needed. You should also be able to identify common beneficial insects and their immature stages (i.e., lady bug larvae) to avoid accidentally targeting natural enemies with insecticides. There are dozens of minor and secondary insect pests that may attack crops on a less frequent basis. Growers should have unknown insects and minor pests identified (see Diagnostics for Plant Problems) when they are suspected of causing crop damage. Misidentification often leads to the application of an ineffective pesticide and extensive or chronic crop damage. The application of ineffective or unnecessary pesticides can often reduce the populations of beneficial organisms or natural enemies and lead to secondary insect or mite outbreaks. An accurate diagnosis of the problem early on can often prevent years of frustration and needless expense. See the Northeast Vegetable & Strawberry Pest Identification Guide for help with identification.

Scouting and Monitoring

Crops should be inspected or scouted for insects or damage in a systematic fashion, on a regular basis throughout the growing season. For many crops and pests, this may mean walking fields weekly, or even more frequently, especially during critical or vulnerable plant development stages. Crops should be scouted in a systematic fashion by walking in an "M" or "W" pattern as you crisscross the field. Select plants (e.g., 25 or 50) at random and quantify the pest damage or count the individual insects. Record the average number of insects or damage per plant for each field. Scouting crops always saves money in the long run by allowing for early pest detection, by reducing crop damage and by helping to maintain consistent quality. Sometimes scouting duties can be performed by other farm members or by hired consultants.

Monitoring insect populations with various types of traps (black light, pheromone, sticky, baited) can supplement or sometimes substitute for information normally gathered during crop scouting. Insect traps can help you quantify pest pressure that is difficult to see, such as the number of night flying (e.g., corn earworm) moths present. The number of insects captured in traps is often used to time scouting activities, predict future pest levels, or is used in conjunction with action thresholds to time sprays and help avoid crop damage.

Action Thresholds

Action thresholds tell you when to spray to prevent economic damage to the crop. They also help you avoid applying insecticides to crops when insect populations are low or no pests are present. Thresholds can be based on the number of insects found per plant, the amount of injury or damage per plant, or the number of insects captured in a trap. Using action thresholds helps improve insecticide timing and effectiveness, helps minimize the number of applications and associated costs, and helps reduce crop damage and resistance problems. Use action thresholds whenever possible to help you decide if and when a spray is needed. Some insect thresholds are provided in this publication. See your state's Extension IPM personnel for local action thresholds for specific pests.

Preventative Controls

As mentioned in the introduction to the general Pest Management section, there are many preventative management options, such as cultural, mechanical, physical, genetic and biological controls. These should be used whenever possible to help prevent insect pest problems. Preventative insect control options can be used alone or in combination to provide a complete management program. For example, plant inspections, eliminating weeds in the greenhouse, using screens, avoiding excess nitrogen applications, using plastic mulch and preserving natural enemies can combine to produce a very effective aphid management program. If the distance between fields is great enough, crop rotation (alone) for Colorado potato beetle and cucumber beetles can often keep these tough pests from reaching damaging levels for the entire season. However, if only nearby fields are available, CPB can be effectively controlled by the use of a combination of two or more alternative controls, such as short-distance crop rotation, intervening trap crops or plastic-lined trenches, row covers, organic mulches, flaming, and microbial controls. Many preventative controls are mentioned in crop-specific IPM manuals, individual pest fact sheets and on IPM websites.

Perimeter Trap Cropping utilizes a combination of control measures to concentrate and/or kill pests in the border area of the field. This technique involves planting one or more rows of an attractive plant species so that it completely encircles the less attractive main crop, and intercepts a migrating insect population. Often a chemical or microbial insecticide is used to spot-spray the perimeter trap crop (only), sparing beneficials on the main crop, and substantially reducing insecticide use. Perimeter trap cropping has been shown to be effective at controlling diamondback moth larvae on cabbage, using collards as the trap crop; pepper maggots on bell peppers or eggplant, using hot cherry peppers as the trap crop; and cucumber beetles on summer squash, winter squash, cucumbers, melons, and sometimes pumpkins, using Blue Hubbard squash or another Cucurbita maxima variety as the trap crop. This technique may prove useful on related crops and against additional pests in the future.

Insecticides

Follow the label specifications for application rates. If the rate suggested in this guide does not agree with the current label, follow the label recommendations. Amounts of pesticides are in lb/A (pounds per acre), oz/A (ounces per acre) or pt/A (pints per acre) of commercial formulation, not a.i. (active ingredient), unless otherwise stated. The percentage by weight or concentration of a.i. varies with different brands of pesticides. The label gives pounds of a.i. in each commercial preparation. For example, Assail 30SG contains 30 lbs. active ingredient per 100 lbs. of formulated material.

The amount of insecticide recommended per acre should not be changed when varying gallonage of water per acre. Make sure a pesticide is labeled for concentrate application before using a low volume sprayer, air or mist sprayer, aircraft or other concentrate application equipment.

Seed Treatments

Insecticide seed treatments may help protect your crop from soil insects and other early-season pests. Some of the seed treatments listed under various crops must be applied by a professionally licensed seed coating applicator. In some cases, the use or purchase of treated seed may be economical as it may result in a substantial reduction in pesticide use and increase the plant stand and yield in the field.

Resistance Management

Adult pests that survive an environmental hardship, such as the application of an insecticide, are likely to pass the trait that enabled them to survive on to their offspring. Repeat applications with the same type of pesticide will eventually remove almost all the susceptible individuals from a pest population and leave only those with the resistant gene. Because insects and mites go through generations quickly, resistance to an overused pesticide can develop in as little as three years.

To preserve the useful life of a pesticide, it is necessary to practice resistance management. The most effective way to extend the useful life of an effective product is to use it on a single pest generation only, and then on the next generation use a second pesticide with a different method of killing the pest (mode of action). On some pests particularly prone to developing resistance (e.g., Colorado potato beetle) it is best to use a product with a particular mode of action on one generation every second year only. To help select pesticides with a different mode of action, see chemical resistance groupings in Table 26. These resistance group numbers, or IRAC codes, were developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). Products with the same code (number and letter) indicate products with a common mode of action. For multiple applications to the same crop, select products from different resistance groups.

Once a pest develops resistance to a group of pesticides with a particular mode of action, a higher rate of a similar chemical from the same group usually will not control the insect.

NOTE: There is no cross-resistance between insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. For example, there is no problem when using material from the herbicide group 1 and an insecticide or fungicide from group 1.

There are many other techniques that can help delay the onset of resistance. Most resistance management techniques help minimize the use of pesticides so that a lower proportion of each pest generation is exposed to the toxin.

  • Integrate chemical control with effective cultural, mechanical, physical, and genetic management options.
  • Use biological/microbial control agents or other selective pesticides to preserve natural enemies and help minimize the number of repeat applications.
  • Scout, monitor and use action thresholds to ensure that applications are necessary.
  • Good spray coverage helps do the job right the first time and avoids unnecessary repeat applications: use the proper size nozzles and the correct angle or orientation and an adequate amount of water per acre.
  • Time the application so that the most vulnerable insect life stage is exposed to the spray.
  • Use spot sprays, perimeter trap crop treatments, refuge plantings, and other methods that prevent the entire field or population from being treated to help preserve susceptible individuals.

Toxicity Rating of Insecticides

Insecticides vary greatly in their toxicity to humans and the environment. The toxicity of the insecticide is usually stated in the precaution on the label. For example, a skull and crossbones figure and the signal word "Danger" are always found on the label of highly toxic (Toxicity Class I) materials. Those of medium toxicity (Toxicity Class II) carry the signal word "Warning." The least toxic materials (Toxicity Class III) have the signal word "Caution." The toxicity of a pesticide is expressed in terms of oral and dermal LD50. LD50 is the dosage of poison that kills 50% of test animals (usually rats or rabbits) with a single application of the pure pesticide for a given weight of the animal (mg/kg of body weight). The lower the LD50 value, the more toxic the material. Oral LD50 is the measure of the toxicity of pure pesticide when administered internally to test animals. Dermal LD50 is the measure of the toxicity of pure pesticide applied to the skin of test animals. Generally, an oral exposure is more toxic than a dermal one.

Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators

Honeybees and native pollinators visit vegetable crops during flowering and pollen shed. In crops such as cucurbits, their activity is crucial to the success of the crop. In other crops such as sweet corn or potato, bees are among many beneficial insects that seek out pollen or nectar resources as a food source, but crop yield does not depend upon their activity.  Populations of honeybees and native pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. Many factors have contributed to their decline. Pesticides applied to crops is one of these factors.

Pesticides applied to protect vegetable crops can affect pollinators through multiple routes of exposure: direct contact with sprays, contact with treated surfaces, pesticide-contaminated dust or pollen particles that are collected or adhere to the body of the insect (and may be taken back to hive), and ingestion of pesticide-contaminated nectar. Decisions made by the farmer make a difference in the exposure of bees and other beneficials to toxic levels of pesticides. While pesticides applied to crops are only one among many factors that threaten pollinators, this is one factor that growers can do something about. Taking precautions to minimize pesticide poisoning of pollinators in all crops is an important responsibility of all pesticide applicators.

Steps that can reduce pesticide exposure of pollinators:

Timing.  Avoid applications when crop or weeds are in bloom. In crops that bloom over long periods, make applications late in the day or at night when pollinators are not foraging, and so that there is sufficient drying time before foraging begins. Control weeds.

Formulation. Wettable powders, dusts and microencapsulated products have a greater toxic hazard than emulsifiable concentrates (or other liquid formulation with active ingredient in solution). Products that do not have acute toxicity but could cause injury to immature bees if carried back to the hive should not be applied in particulate form; this includes insect growth regulators.

Drying time before exposure. Some products are highly toxic when wet, but much less so after the pesticide is dried. Spinosyns have this characteristic. Apply when there will be adequate drying time (usually 2-3 hours, depending on weather conditions and crop canopy) before pollinator activity.

Drift. Avoid drift on non-target areas near the field where blooming plants may be located. Windspeed and application equipment both influence drift.

Mode of application. Soil and seed applications reduce exposure compared to foliar applications, unless plant uptake of the active ingredient produces residues in pollen or nectar. In the case of neonicotinoids, there is evidence that foraging bees may receive sublethal doses in pollen and nectar when cucurbit crops were treated with a systemic at early growth stages. This effect appears to be reduced by using lower rates and applying as early as possible, but may not be entirely eliminated by these methods. A sublethal dose may make bees more vulnerable to other stressors, or may combine with doses from contact with other treated plant material.

Acute toxicity. Avoid applying insecticides rated as High or Medium directly to bees that are actively foraging on blooming crop or weeds. See Table 26 for information on insecticide active ingredients and toxicity. EPA registration includes an acute, single-dose laboratory study designed to determine the quantity of pesticide that will cause 50% mortality (LD50) in a test population of bees.

Read the label for bee hazard rating. If a pesticide is used outdoors as a foliar application, and is toxic to pollinating insects, a “Bee Hazard” warning has generally been required to be included in the Environmental Hazards section of the label. The EPA bee toxicity groupings and label statements are as follows:

High (H) Bee acute toxicity rating: LD50 = 2 micrograms/bee or less. The label has the following statement: "This product is highly toxic to bees and other pollinating insects exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees or other pollinating insects are visiting the treatment area."  If the residues phrase is not present, this indicates that the pesticide does not show extended residual toxicity.
Moderate (M) Product contains any active ingredient(s) with acute LD50 of greater than 2 micrograms/bee but less than 11 micrograms/bee. Statement: "This product is moderately toxic to bees and other pollinating insects exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product if bees or other pollinating insects are visiting the treatment area."
Low (L) All others. No bee or pollinating insect caution required.

In this guide, Table 26 (Information about Insecticides and Miticides) gives the bee toxicity rating (H, M or L) for each active ingredient. In the Insect Management section for each crop, the bee toxicity rating is given for each insecticide listed.

Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name

The symbol * indicates a Federally restricted-use pesticide

The symbol OG indicates a pesticide that has been listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production.

Some products are described in detail as examples for a given active ingredient (AI). For more information on other products with the same AI, refer to the example. Always refer to the specific product label before applying any product.

All tolerances for chlorpyrifos in food crops were revoked in 2022, therefore products containing chlorpyrifos (e.g. Lorsban) cannot be applied to any food crop and growers CAN NOT use up existing stock.

At the time of writing, all products listed were registered in at least one New England state. Check registration status in your state before using any product.

Abacus* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information.  

Abamex* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information.

Abba* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information.

Acenthrin* (acephate + bifenthrin): A mixture of two broad-spectrum neurotoxins. See Orthene and Brigade for more information on active ingredients in this product.

Acephate (acephate): See Orthene for more information.

Acramite (bifenazate): A selective miticide, which acts on contact as a nerve toxin with knockdown activity and long residual. Registered as a foliar spray for control of mites on cucurbits, eggplant, okra, peppers, field-grown tomatoes (for greenhouse tomatoes, see bifenzate product, Floramite), succulent beans and peas, and herbs. Relatively safe on beneficials. (Group 25, REI 12h)

Acronyx (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Actara (thiamethoxam): A systemic neonicotinoid with translaminar activity, registered for use as a foliar spray for control of aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies, and other pests on brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, globe artichoke, leafy vegetables, mint, and root and tuberous vegetables. Do not use in greenhouses or on plants grown for use as transplants. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Admire (imidacloprid): A systemic neonicotinoid, registered for use in soil, seed piece, and foliar applications. Labeled for use on cucurbits, herbs, brassicas, legumes, roots, bulbs, tubers, corms, globe artichoke, and fruiting and leafy vegetables for control of aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, whiteflies, thrips and Colorado potato beetle. Also labeled for use in greenhouses on mature cucumber and tomato plants to control aphids and whiteflies. Do not apply to non-soil media or in hydroponic systems. Specific labeled application methods vary by crop. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Advise (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

AgreeOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai strain GC91): See XenTari for more information.

Agri-Mek* (abamectin): A locally systemic, selective chloride channel activator insecticide and miticide, derived from a metabolite of a soil bacterium, Streptomyces avermitilis. Registered for use as a foliar spray with translaminar activity to control spider mites on celeriac and sweet corn, thrips and leafminers on onions (bulb & green), and mites and leaf miners on cucurbits, dry beans, fruiting vegetables, herbs, tubers and corms, and non-brassica leafy greens. Also controls Colorado potato beetle and tomato and potato psyllid on fruiting vegetables and potatoes. Labeled for use on commercially produced greenhouse tomato for leafminer, mites, thrips, tomato psyllid, and tomato pinworm. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 6, REI 12h)

Akari (fenpyroximate): See Portal for more information.

Alias (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Altus (flupyradifurone): See Sivanto for more information.

Amazin PlusOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

Ambush* (permethrin): See Pounce for more information.

AmTide Imidacloprid (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Anarchy (acetamiprid): See Assail for more information.

AncoraOG (Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97): See PFR-97 for more information.

Archer (pyriproxyfen): See Esteem for more information.

Arctic* (permethrin): See Pounce for more information.

Arvida (acetamiprid): See Assail for more information.

Asana* (esfenvalerate): A broad-spectrum, pyrethroid insecticide that works by contact and ingestion. Labeled for foliar applications on artichoke, beans, brassicas, carrots, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, roots, sweet corn and potatoes to control a wide variety of pests. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates and highly toxic to bees. (Group 3, REI 12h)

Assail (acetamiprid): A selective neonicotinoid, with translaminar activity, that controls sucking and chewing insects through contact and ingestion. Registered to control aphids, whitefly and other pests on asparagus, leafy vegetables, cole crops, fruiting vegetables, cucurbits, sweet corn, and succulent peas and beans. Also labeled for control of thrips on bulb vegetables, as well as aphids, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle and other pests on tuberous and corm vegetables. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Athena* (abamectin + bifenthrin): A mixture of a broad-spectrum pyrethroid and bacterium-derived chloride channel activator. See Agri-Mek and Brigade for more information on active ingredients in this product.

Avaunt (indoxacarb): A sodium channel blocker with translaminar activity that causes paralysis and death after being ingested on plant tissue. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, beets, leafy greens, leafy petioles, mint, and tubers and corms to control caterpillars. Also registered to control European corn borer and fall armyworm in whorl and be used in irrigation systems except for application to potatoes and sweet corn. Relatively safe for beneficials, but toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. (Group 22, REI 12h)

Averland* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information. 

Aza-DirectOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

AzaGuardOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

AzaMaxOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

AzatinOG (azadirachtin): A natural insect growth regulator extracted from the seeds of the neem tree, works by contact or ingestion against immature insect stages and has anti-feedant properties. Has some systemic activity and can be taken up by plant roots; may be used as a transplant drench. Registered for use as a foliar spray in field and greenhouse on all vegetable and vegetable transplants and herbs to control multiple pests. Short residual. Note: Azatin O is OMRI certified, but Azatin XL is not. (Group un, REI 4h)

AzatrolOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

AzeraOG (azadirachtin + pyrethrin): See Azatin and Pyganic for more information.

Aztec* (beta-cyfluthrin + tebuprimphos): A mix of pyrethroid and organophosphate chemistries registered (VT only) for soil applications in sweet corn and popcorn for control of corn rootworms, cutworms, wireworms, seedcorn maggot, seedcorn beetle, and white grubs. (Group 1B, REI 48h)

Baythroid* (beta-cyfluthrin): A broad-spectrum, pyrethroid insecticide that works by contact or ingestion, labeled for foliar applications on brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, leafy greens, dry beans, potatoes and other tubers and corms, carrots, radishes, and sweet corn for contact control of caterpillars, flea beetles, stink bugs, and other pests. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates and highly toxic to bees. (Group 3, REI 12h)

Batallion* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information

Belay (clothianidin): A neonicotinoid with long residual control, registered for use in foliar and soil applications on brassicas, cucurbits, and fruiting and leafy vegetables. Becomes systemic when applied to soil, and has translaminar activity when applied to foliage. Labeled to control aphids, flea beetles, stink bugs, leafhoppers, cucumber beetles, Colorado potato beetle, and other pests. Also labeled for use on tuberous and corm vegetables in foliar, seed piece and soil applications to control aphids, Colorado potato beetle, wireworms, white grubs, and other pests. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Beleaf (flonicamid): A pyridinecarboxamide with translaminar activity that works by contact and ingestion. Feeding stops rapidly and mortality will follow. Labeled for use on brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, leafy greens, tubers and corms, root vegetables, greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes and mint for selective control of aphids, plant bugs and greenhouse whitefly. (Group 29, REI 12h)

Belt (flubendiamide): Note: All flubendiamide registrations were canceled by the EPA in 2016. Growers may use up existing stock. A diamide, active by insect larval ingestion, leading to a rapid cessation of feeding followed by death. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on brassicas and turnip greens, corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, and legumes to control caterpillars. Not labeled for use in enclosed structures, such as greenhouses. (Group 28, REI 12h)

Besiege* (chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin): See Coragen and Warrior for more information.

Bifenture* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information.

Blackhawk (spinosad): See Entrust for more information.

Bifen* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information.

BiobitOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain ABTS-351): See Dipel for more information.

BioCeresOG (Beauveria bassiana Strain ANT-03): See Mycotrol for more information.

Bonide Garden Dust (sulfur): See Microthiol Disperss for more information.

Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA): See Mycotrol ESO for more information. Not approved for organic production. Notes: ES formulation may be phytotoxic on tomatoes. Maxx formulation contains pyrethrins.

Brigade* (bifenthrin): A broad-spectrum, pyrethroid insecticide and miticide. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on a wide variety of crops to control aphids, flea beetles, leafhoppers, stink bugs, caterpillars and several other pests. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates and highly toxic to bees. Prohibited in areas where application may result in exposure to endangered species. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

Brigadier* (bifenthrin + imidacloprid): See Brigade and Admire for more information.

BT NowOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain EVB 113-19): See Dipel for more information.

Captiva (capsicum oleoresin extract + garlic oil): A repellant and insecticide made from concentrated plant extracts. Works by contact. Has anti-feedant, anti-egg laying, and irritant activity, and weakens cuticles of immature stages of some insect and mite pests. Registered for foliar applications in field and greenhouse on all food crops including greenhouse vegetable and transplant production to repel or suppress soft-bodied pests. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

Capture* (bifenthrin): A broad-spectrum, pyrethroid insecticide and miticide, labeled for soil applications. Capture LFR can be mixed directly with liquid fertilizer or with water. Registered for use on a wide variety of crops to control wireworm, grubs, root maggot, cutworm, flea beetle larvae, and other soil dwelling pests. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates and highly toxic to bees. Prohibited in areas where application may result in exposure to endangered species. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

Carbaryl (carbaryl): See Sevin for more information.

Citation (cyromazine): Labeled for vegetable transplants grown for consumer use. See Trigard for more information.

Clinch Ant Bait* (abamectin): A selective chloride channel activator insecticide that kills ants by ingestion, and acts to cease viable egg production. Registered as a soil treatment in various crops to control fire ants. Long residual. (Group 6, REI 12h)

Closer (sulfoxaflor):  See Transform for more information. Note: After being cancelled in 2015, sulfoxaflor registrations have been reinstated by the EPA under limited-use restrictions.

Confirm (tebufenozide): A selective insect growth regulator that induces a premature lethal molt within hours of ingestion. Labeled for use on brassicas, leafy vegetables, turnips, and fruiting vegetables and mint to control caterpillars. Not disruptive to beneficials and bees. (Group 18, REI 4h)

Consero* (spinosad + gamma-cyhalothrin): Labeled for corn and legumes. See Entrust and Declare for more information.

Coragen (chlorantraniliprole): A diamide that has contact activity, but is most effective through ingestion of treated plant material. Insects rapidly stop feeding, become paralyzed and typically die within 1-3 days. Becomes systemic when applied to soil. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on artichoke, asparagus, bulb vegetables, corn, herbs, legumes, and roots and tubers to control caterpillars; and potatoes to control caterpillars and Colorado potato beetle. Also labeled as a foliar, drip irrigation, and soil treatment on brassicas, cucurbits, and fruiting and leafy vegetables to control caterpillars, leafminer and whitefly larvae, and Colorado potato beetle. Also labeled as a transplant water treatment for suppression of cabbage root maggot in leafy brassicas. Effective against difficult to control caterpillars such as beet and fall armyworm. Relatively safe for beneficials and non-target organisms. (Group 28, REI 4h)

Cormoran (novaluron + acetamiprid): See Rimon and Assail for more information.

CoStarOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain SA-12): See Dipel for more information.

Couraze (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Cruiser (thiamethoxam): A systemic neonicotinoid commercial seed treatment that is taken up by the seedling plant and controls chewing and sucking insects through contact and ingestion. Labeled for use on cucurbits, legumes and potatoes to control aphids, leafminers, wireworms and several other pests, including Mexican bean leaf beetle and thrips on legumes and Colorado potato beetle on potatoes. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

CrymaxOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain EG7841): See Dipel for more information.

Damoil (mineral oil): See Suffoil-X for more information.

Danitol* (fenpropathrin): A pyrethroid insecticide-miticide with contact activity. Labeled for use on cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, brassicas and peas to control a wide variety of pests including aphids, caterpillars, flea beetles, spotted wing drosophila, Colorado potato beetle, and stink bugs. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic organisms, and highly toxic to bees. (Group 3A, REI 24h)

Deadline M-Ps (metaldehyde): A toxic bait for slugs and snails. Labeled for use as a soil surface treatment for most vegetable crops. Not for direct application to or contamination of edible portions of the plant; to be applied as a band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Long-lasting; resistant to rain and watering. (No resistance classification, REI 12h)

Debug Turbo (azadirachtin + neem oil): See Azatin for more information.

Declare* (gamma-cyhalothrin): A microencapsulated broad-spectrum pyrethroid that acts on contact and via ingestion. Registered for use on brassicas, sweet corn, popcorn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, legumes, lettuce, onion, garlic, tuberous and corm vegetables to control a wide variety of pests. Highly toxic to bees and extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. (Group 3A, REI 24h)

Defcon* (beta-cyfluthrin + tebupirimfos): For control of soil insects in corn. See Baythroid and Aztec for more information.

DeliverOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki): See Dipel for more information.

Delta Gold* (deltamethrin): A broad-spectrum, pyrethroid insecticide. Labeled for use on corn, cucurbits, bulb, fruiting, root, tuberous and corm vegetables, and globe artichoke to control a wide variety of pests. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates, and highly toxic to bees. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

DES-XOG (insecticidal soap): See M-Pede for more information.

Diazinon* (diazinon): An organophosphate with contact activity, labeled for use as a soil spray to be broadcast before planting and incorporated into the soil. Labeled for use on succulent legumes, tomatoes, and specific brassicas, melons, roots, and leafy greens to control cutworms, wireworms, and on some crops mole crickets and/or root maggots. Not to be used in greenhouses. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1B, REI 2 to 4 days depending on crop)

Dimate (dimethoate): See Dimethoate for more information.

Dimethoate (dimethoate): A broad-spectrum organophosphate with systemic and contact activity against piercing, sucking, and chewing insects and mites. Labeled for use on asparagus, beans, some brassicas, leafy greens, melons (except watermelons), celery, fruiting crops, succulent beans. Useful for control of pepper maggot in peppers. Not to be used in greenhouses. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1B, REI 48h)

Dimilin* (diflubenzuron): A selective insect growth regulator that disrupts the molting process of insect larvae. Labeled for use on peppers to control armyworms and pepper weevils. Not disruptive to bees or other beneficial insects. (Group 15, REI 12h)

DipelOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki): A bacterium-derived insecticide that works by ingestion. Labeled for use on root, tuber, bulb, leafy green, brassica, legume, fruiting and cucurbit vegetables to control caterpillars. Safe for bees and beneficial insects. Note: Dipel ES is not OMRI listed, Dipel DF is. (Group 11A, REI 4h)

Discipline* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information.

Distance IGR (pyriproxyfen): An insect growth regulator that works by suppressing the development of the embryo within the egg and inhibiting metamorphosis of nymphs, larvae, and pupae into adults. Works by contact and ingestion. Labeled for use as a foliar spray with translaminar activity when used on indoor-grown fruiting vegetables to control greenhouse, silverleaf, and sweet potato whitefly, as well as fungus gnats and shore flies when applied as a soil drench. (Group 7D, REI 12h)

Durivo (chlorantraniliprole + thiamethoxam): See Coragen and Actara for more information.

Ecotrol PlusOG (rosemary oil + peppermint oil + geraniol): A broad-spectrum, plant-based granular insecticide that works on contact. Labeled for foliar application to a variety of crops for control of aphids, beetles, plant bugs,  whiteflies, mites, thrips, and early stages of caterpillars. This product is exempt from EPA pesticide registration requirements.

Ecotrol G2OG (rosemary oil + peppermint oil): A broad-spectrum, plant-based granular insecticide, formulated from plant oils on ground corn cob. Incorporate as a band or with seeds at or after planting. Labeled for use on a variety of crops for control of wireworms, cutworms, root maggots, and symphylans. This product is exempt from EPA pesticide registration requirements.

EcozinOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

Elevest (bifenthrin + chlorantraniliprole): See Brigade and Coragen for more information.

Empower* (bifenthrin): See Brigade (for foliar applications) or Capture (for soil applications) for more information. Granular formulations may not be applied in coastal counties.

Endeavor (pymetrozine): See Fulfill for more information.

Endigo* (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiomethoxam): See Warrior and Actara for more information.

EntrustOG (spinosad): A nerve and stomach poison derived from the soil bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Registered for use as a foliar spray with some translaminar activity on asparagus, brassicas, bulb vegetables, corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, herbs, leafy greens, legumes, roots, and tubers to control lepidopteran larvae, Colorado potato beetle, leafminers, thrips and other pests. Helps conserve beneficial predators, but may be toxic to some parasites of insect pests. Toxic to bees for three hours following treatment. (Group 5, REI 4h).

Esteem (pyriproxyfen): An insect growth regulator that works by suppressing the development of the embryo within the egg and inhibiting metamorphosis of nymphs, larvae, and pupae into adults. Does not control adult insects. Labeled for use as a foliar spray with translaminar activity on dry bulb onions to control onion and Western flower thrips and on legumes to control silverleaf and sweet potato whitefly. Not for use in irrigation systems. (Group 7D, REI 12h)

Ethos* (bifenthrin + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747): Group 3A insecticide + biofungicide for in-furrow treatment of soil pests and disease

Evergreen (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide): See Pyganic and Pyronyl Crop Spray for more information. 

Exirel (cyantraniliprole): A diamide that has some contact activity, but is most effective through ingestion. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on brassica, bulb, cucurbit, fruiting, and leafy vegetables, as well as greenhouse-grown eggplant, pepper, and tomato to control sucking and chewing insects including lepidopteran larvae, aphids, flea beetle, leafminers, thrips, and whitefly. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 28, REI 12h)

Fanfare* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information.

Fastac* (alpha-cypermethrin): A broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide. Labeled for foliar applications on brassicas, sweet corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, leafy vegetables, and legumes to control a wide variety of pests. Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates and highly toxic to bees. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

Flagship (thimethoxam): For use in greenhouses on vegetable transplants for resale only. See Actara for more information.

Floramite (bifenazate): A selective contact carbazate miticide with knockdown activity and long residual. Labeled for use on greenhouse tomatoes (for field tomatoes, see bifenazate product, Acramite) to control mites. Relatively safe on beneficials. (Group un, REI 12h)

Force* (tefluthrin): A pyrethroid that works by ingestion and contact. Labeled for use in band and in-furrow soil applications at planting on sweet corn and popcorn to control wireworms, seedcorn maggots, white grubs and other soil insect pests. (Group 3A, REI 48h)

Fulfill (pymetrozine): A selective hemipteran feeding blocker that works primarily by ingestion, but has some contact activity. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on potatoes and other tuberous roots and corms, asparagus, brassicas, cucurbits, and fruiting and leafy vegetables to control aphids. Translaminar, long residual. Low toxicity to beneficials, including bees, but do not apply to bees that are actively foraging. (Group 9B, REI 12h)

Fyfanon (malathion): See Malathion for more information.

GemstarOG (nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Helicoverpa zea): A selective biopesticide for control of Helicoverpa zea on several vegetables, fruits, and field crops. Larvae ingesting the virus stop feeding within several days, become pale and lethargic, and then die as the virus replicates throughout their bodies. Frequent application at low rates is usually more effective than infrequent application at high rates. (Group un, REI 4 h)

GF-120 Naturalyte Fruit Fly BaitOG (spinosad): An insecticidal bait labeled for use as a foliar and soil spray on vegetable and food crops to control tephritid fruit flies. Highly toxic to bees if directly applied. (Group 5, REI 4h)

GnatrolOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis): A bacterium-derived larvicide labeled for use as a soil drench on vegetable plants including brassicas, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, cucumbers, peppers, and eggplants to control fungus gnat larvae. (Group 11, REI 4h)

Golden Pest Spray OilOG (soybean oil): A soybean-derived horticultural oil that works as a contact insecticide, as well as a feeding and oviposition deterrent. Labeled for use in sweet corn for control of earworm root worms and fall armyworm. Also labeled for use on a range vegetable crops to control other soft-bodied insects. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

GrandevoOG (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1): A selective biological insecticide/miticide that works as a stomach poison upon ingestion. Labeled for use as a foliar spray or in chemigation for control of certain caterpillars, foliage-feeding beetles, aphids, whiteflies, mites, leafhoppers and thrips on many vegetable crops. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

Grizzly* (lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

Harvanta (cyclaniliprole): A broad-spectrum diamide. Labeled for use in leafy vegetables, heading brassicas and leafy and fruiting vegetables for caterpillars, flea beetles, thrips, stink bugs, and aphids (Group 28, REI 4h)

HeligenOG (Helicoverpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus ABA-NPV-U): See Gemstar for more information.

Hero* (bifenthrin + zeta-cypermethrin): See Brigade and Mustang for more information.

Holster* (zeta-cypermethrin): See Mustang for more information.

Imidan (phosmet): A broad-spectrum organophosphate labeled for use on potato and sweet potato to control Colorado potato beetle, European corn borer, flea beetle, potato leafhopper, and other pests. Potatoes and sweet potatoes must be harvested mechanically. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1B, REI 5 days)

Intrepid (methoxyfenozide): A selective diacylhydrazine insect growth regulator that works by ingestion. Labeled for use on leafy brassicas, other leafy greens, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, root vegetables, sweet potato, globe artichoke, green onions, legumes, popcorn, and herbs. Controls caterpillars by causing a premature and incomplete lethal molt. Safe for bees and other beneficial insects. (Group 18, REI 4h)

Intrepid Edge (methoxyfenozide + spinetoram): See Intrepid and Radiant for more information.

Inspirato (methoxyfenozide): See Intrepid for more information.

Intruder (acetamiprid): See Assail for more information.

Invertid (methoxyfenozide): See Intrepid for more information.

JavelinOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki): See Dipel for more information. 

JMS Stylet OilOG (paraffinic oil): See Suffoil-X for more information. Note: Organic JMS Stylet Oil is OMRI listed; JMS Stylet Oil is not.

Kanemite (acequinocyl): A selective miticide with knockdown and residual activity. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on fruiting vegetables, edible-podded beans, and edamame to control two-spotted spider mite, and on cucurbits, succulent shelled beans, and okra to control two-spotted spider mites and broad mites. Shows efficacy on all mite life stages. Relatively harmless to most predaceous mites and beneficial insects, (Group 20B, REI 12h)

Kilter* (imidacloprid + lambda-cyhalothrin): See Admire + Warrior for more information.

Knack (pyriproxyfen): An insect growth regulator that works by contact on immature stages. No activity against adult insects. Labeled for use as a foliar spray with translaminar activity on brassicas, cucurbits, succulent and dry legumes, and roots and tubers to control various whitefly species. Also labeled for use on tomatoes to control whiteflies, armyworms, tomato pinworm, thrips and other pests; for other fruiting vegetables to control whiteflies, cabbage looper, green peach aphids, and tobacco hornworm; and for bulb vegetables to control onion thrips. (Group 7C, REI 12h)

Kontos Greenhouse and Nursery (spirotetramat): For use in greenhouses on vegetable transplants for resale only. See Movento for more information.

Lada (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Lambda-Cy* (lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

Lambda-T2* (lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

LambdaStar*(lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

Lamcap* (lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

Lannate* (methomyl): A broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide with translaminar activity. Works on contact, and short-term via ingestion of treated foliage, on all pest life stages. Registered as a foliar spray on a variety of crops for control of aphids, caterpillars, and beetles, including brown marmorated stinkbug. Effective on melon aphids. Other aphids and some caterpillars, such as diamondback moth and cabbage loopers, tend to be resistant. Short residual. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1A, REI 48h)

Leap (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain ABTS-351 + methyl salicylate): Selective insecticidal bacterium and a plant extract linked to disease control.

Leprotec (Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain EVB-113-19): See Dipel for more information.

Leverage* (imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin): See Admire and Baythroid for more information.

Macho (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Magister (fenazaquin): A mitichondial electron transport inhibitor (METI) that acts on eggs, immature, and adult mites and certain insects. Also Group 39 fungicidal activity.  Highly toxic to bees, fish, and aquatic invertebrates (Group 21A, REI 12h).

Magus (fenazaquin): See Magister for more information.

MajesteneOG (Heat-killed Burkholderia spp.): See Venerate for more information. Also has a 2(ee) use as a seed treatment, in-furrow at planting, or as a soil drench for the suppression of wireworms, white grubs, as well as root knot, dagger, cyst, stunt, and lesion nematodes attacking potato and sweet potato. (Group un, REI 4 h)

Malathion (malathion): An organophosphate insecticide that acts by contact as a nerve toxin. Registered as a foliar spray on a variety of vegetable crops to control a wide range of insect pests. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1B, REI 12h to 2 days, depending on crop)

Malice (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Mallet (imidacloprid): Labeled for use inside greenhouses through irrigation or drench application or as a foliar spray for vegetable transplants and nursery stock for resale only. See Admire for more information. Refer to specific product label before applying. 

Mantra (imidacroprid): For use in greenhouses on vegetable transplants for resale only. See Admire for more information.

Manticor (bifenthrin + pyraclostrobin): For in-furrow application in sweet corn; a group 3A insecticide + group 11 fungicide. See for more information Brigade for more information.

Marathon (imidacloprid): Labeled for use inside greenhouses for vegetable transplants and nursery stock for resale only. See Admire for more information.

Met52 (Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52): Composed of spores of a naturally occurring insect pathogenic fungus. Spores attach to the insect and hyphae penetrate the exoskeleton, growing inside and causing death, usually taking 3-7 days from exposure, depending on temperature. Labeled for use as a foliar spray or soil drench on field and greenhouse onions to control thrips, and on field and greenhouse cucurbits, celery, lettuce, spinach, peppers, and tomatoes to control thrips, whiteflies, and mites. Persistence will generally be higher when incorporated into soil but may be effective for a few months even in foliar applications. The EPA reports that M. anisopliae strain F52 is not harmful to earthworms or to such beneficial insects as lady beetles, green lacewings, parasitic wasps, honey bee larvae, and honey bee adults. (Group un, REI 0h when mechanically soil-incorporated, 4h otherwise)

Microfine sulfurOG (sulfur): See Microthiol Disperss for more information.

Microthiol DisperssOG (sulfur): Micronized wettable sulfur for use on a variety of crops to control mites. (Group M2 fungicide, no insect resistance classification, REI 24h)

Millenium (Steinernema carpocapsae): A biological control for ground dwelling insects and certain borers. Entomopathogenic nematodes must be refrigerated and can not be frozen. See label for compatibility with various pesticides. (Group un, No REI).

Minecto Pro (abamectin + cyantraniliprole): See Agri-Mek and Verimark for more information.

Mite-E-Oil (mineral oil): See Suffoil-X for more information.

Mocap* (ethoprop): An organophosphate nematicide-insecticide that works as a nerve toxin. Labeled for soil applications on mint, potatoes, and sweet potatoes to control various soil pests. Extremely toxic to birds. (Group 1B, REI 48h)

Molt-XOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

Montana (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Movento (spirotetramat): A tetronic acid derivative insecticide that works primarily by ingestion against immature pest stages. Fertility of adult stages may also be reduced. It is taken up by leaves and translocated to become fully systemic. Registered as a foliar spray on several vegetable crops to control thrips, aphids, swede midge and other pests. Potentially toxic to bee larvae through residues in pollen and nectar, but not to adult honeybees. Not for use in greenhouses. (Group 23, REI 24h)

M-PedeOG (potassium salts of fatty acids): An insecticidal soap that works by contact as an insecticide, miticide, and fungicide. Registered for use as a foliar spray for most vegetable and herb crops for control of a variety of insect pests; also active against powdery mildew. Must be applied directly to and thoroughly cover target insects. Avoid treatment when plants are stressed. Can be phytotoxic to some crops; test on small plot. May harm beneficials. (No resistance classification, REI 12h)

Mustang* (zeta-cypermethrin): A pyrethroid insecticide that works by contact as a nerve toxin.  Registered for use as a foliar spray on globe artichoke, brassicas, bulbs, sweet corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, leafy greens, legumes, roots, and tubers for control of a wide variety of insect pests. Highly toxic to bees. Extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

Mycotrol ESO (Beauveria bassiana): A fungus that kills adults or larvae by penetrating the cuticle and growing inside the insect. Target pest must contact pesticide directly or be on treated foliage. Registered for use in field and greenhouse on most vegetable crops for control of grasshoppers, aphids, whiteflies, thrips, leafhopper, caterpillars and leaf-feeding beetles, including Colorado potato beetle. Approved for organic production by the Washington State Department of Agriculture. (No resistance classification, REI 4h) 

Nealta Miticide (cyflumetofen): A beta-ketonitrile contact miticide labeled for use on tomatoes to control tertanychid mites only. (Group 25, REI 12h)

NeemixOG (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

Nemasys (Steinernema feltiae): A biological control for thrips in greenhouse operations and other uses. Entomopathogenic nematodes must be refrigerated and cannot be frozen. (Group un, No REI).

Nemasys G (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora): A biological control for white grubs and other uses. Entomopathogenic nematodes must be refrigerated and cannot be frozen. (Group un, No REI).

Nemasys L (Steinernema kraussei): A biological control for black vine weevil and other uses. Entomopathogenic nematodes must be refrigerated and cannot be frozen. (Group un, No REI).

Nudrin* (methomyl): See Lannate for more information.

Nufarm Abamectin* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information.

Nuprid (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Oberon (spiromesifen): A selective tetronic acid derivative insecticide and miticide with translaminar activity. Works on contact and by ingestion to kill juvenile stages of target pests, particularly whitefly pupae. Registered as a foliar spray on sweet corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, leafy greens, brassicas, and tubers and corms for control of aphids, whiteflies, psyllids, and mites. Not for use in greenhouses. (Group 23, REI 12h)

Onyx* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information.

Ornazin (azadirachtin): See Azatin for more information.

Orthene (acephate): A systemic organophosphate insecticide that targets nerve and muscle tissue on contact. Registered for use as a foliar spray for beans, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, celery, crisphead lettuce, mint and peppers to control caterpillars and other pests. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1B, REI 24h)

Pasada (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Permethrin* (permethrin): See Pounce for more information.

PermaStar* (permethrin): See Pounce for more information.

Perm-Up* (permethrin): See Pounce for more information.

PFR-97OG (Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97): A naturally-occurring fungus that penetrates the cuticle of insect pests. Labeled for foliar and soil applications on greenhouse and field-grown vegetable crops to control a variety of insect pests. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

Piston (chlorfenapyr): See Pylon for more information.

Platinum (thiamethoxam): A selective systemic neonicotinoid. Works through ingestion, targeting nerve and muscle tissue. Registered as a soil treatment for brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, leafy greens, roots, tubers, and corms for control of aphids, flea beetles, whiteflies, and other pests. Not for use in greenhouses or on plants grown for use as transplants. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Portal (fenpyroximate): An insecticide and miticide that works on contact to disrupt pest species’ ability to generate energy. Registered for use as a foliar spray on corn, cucumbers, fruiting vegetables, melons, potatoes, and snap beans for control of leafhoppers, mites, psyllids and whiteflies. Good rotational product to alternate with other chemistries. Low toxicity to bees and mammals. Extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. (Group 21A, REI 12h)

Pounce* (permethrin): A broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that works as a nerve toxin. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a variety of crops for control of caterpillars and other pests. Extremely toxic to aquatic organisms and highly toxic to bees. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

PQZ (pyrifluquinazon): Selective insecticide for use for various sucking (sap-feeding) insects such as whiteflies, thrips, aphids, mealybugs and leafhoppers on vegetable and fruit crops. (Group 9B, REI 12h)

PreferalOG (Isaria fumosorosea Apopka strain 97): See PFR-97 for more information.

Prev-AM Ultra (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate): An insecticide, miticide and fungicide that utilizes borax to desiccate soft-bodied insects. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a range of crops to control aphids, caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, and other pests. Also for control of downy mildew, powdery mildew, and late blight. (Group 25, REI 12h)

Prey (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

Proclaim* (emamectin benzoate): A selective avermectin insecticide, derived from a metabolite of the bacterium, Streptomyces avermitilis. Works through ingestion to target nerve and muscle tissue of lepidopteran larvae. Registered for use as a foliar spray with translaminar activity on brassicas, fruiting vegetables (except cucurbits), and leafy vegetables to control caterpillars. Not for use in greenhouses or on plants grown for use as transplants. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 6, REI 12h)

Prokil Cryolite (cryolite): A high rate per acre, fluorine-based insecticide that works as a stomach poison. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, melons, squash, and peppers to control several insect pests including flea beetles and some caterpillars. (Group un, REI 12h)

Province II (lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

PureSpray Green (mineral oil): See Suff-Oil for more information.

PyganicOG (pyrethrins): A broad-spectrum botanical pyrethrum. A fast-acting contact toxin with a short residual, it decays rapidly in sunlight and soils. Registered for use in field and greenhouse on a variety of crops to kill a wide range of insects. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 3A, REI 12h)

Pylon Miticide (chlorfenapyr): A pyrrole insecticide and miticide which works on contact and via ingestion, causing the pest to be unable to generate energy. Has translaminar activity. Registered for use as a foliar spray in greenhouses on tomatoes, eggplant, and peppers, for control of caterpillars, mites, and thrips. (Group 13, REI 12h)

Pyrethrum TR (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide): See Pyronyl Crop Spray for more information. 

Pyronyl Crop Spray (pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide): A broad-spectrum botanical pyrethrum mixed with a synergist (piperonyl butoxide) to improve efficacy. See Pyganic for more information.

Quasar (acetamiprid): See Assail for more information.

Radiant (spinetoram): A nerve and stomach poison derived from the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa; works on contact and by ingestion and has translaminar activity. Registered for use as a foliar spray on asparagus, brassicas, corn, cucurbits, herbs, legumes, and bulb, fruiting, leafy, root, and tuber vegetables for control or suppression of caterpillars, leafminers, psyllids, thrips, and certain beetles. Labeled for suppression of cabbage root maggot in leafy brassicas. Also has 2(ee) label for control of spotted-wing drosophila on fruiting vegetables. Toxic to bees for 3 hours following treatment. (Group 5, REI 4h)

Reaper* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information.

Regent* (fipronil): A chloride channel antagonist that targets nerve and muscle tissue. Registered for in-furrow use on potatoes to control wireworms only. (Group 2B, REI 0h)

Requiem (Chenopodium ambrosioides extract): A contact insecticide and miticide derived from the herb Chenopodium ambrosioides; works on contact. Registered for use as a foliar spray on brassicas, bulbs, cucurbits, fruiting, leafy, root, tuber, and corm vegetables to control leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies. Low impact on beneficials. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

Respect* (zeta-cypermethrin): See Mustang for more information.

ReTurn (oxamyl): See Vydate for more information.

Rimon (novaluron): An insect growth regulator that works through contact or via ingestion on immature stages to disrupt cuticle formation during molt, causing death. Best used on early stages, no activity against adult pests. Registered for use as a foliar spray on beans, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, brassicas, sweet corn, potatoes, and sweet potatoes for control of a wide range of pests. Not for use in greenhouses, except on tomatoes. Low impact on beneficials. (Group 15, REI 12h)

Safari (dinotefuran): A systemic neonicotinoid that targets insect nerve and muscle tissue. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a variety of vegetable transplants grown in enclosed structures for control of aphids, leafminers, mealybugs, thrips, and whiteflies. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Sanmite (pyridaben): An insecticide and acaricide for use in greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes. (Group 21A, REI 12h).

Scorpion (dinotefuran): See Venom for more information.

SeduceOG (spinosad):  An insecticidal bait derived from the soil bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa; acts as a nerve and stomach poison. Attracts and kills insects feeding on or near the base of plants. Registered as a soil treatment on a variety of crops to control a wide range of pests. (Group 5, REI 4h)

Sefina (afidopyropen): See Versys. Labeled for use on cucurbits and other frutiing vegetables.

Sevin (carbaryl): A carbamate that targets nerve and muscle tissue primarily through contact activity. Registered for use as a foliar spray on asparagus, brassicas, cucurbits, legumes, roots, tubers, and fruiting and leafy vegetables to control a range of insect pests. For cutworms, granular formulation or liquid formulation may be used on some crops. Harmful to beneficials, highly toxic to bees, and extremely toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Note: long REI before detasseling corn. (Group 1A, REI 12h, 24h for sweet corn, 21 days before detasseling corn)

Shuttle O (acequinocyl): See Kanemite for more information.

Silencer* (lambda-cyhalothrin): See Warrior for more information.

Sivanto (flupyradifurone): A broad-spectrum insecticide in a new class of chemistries, the Butenolides. Acropetally systemic, and translaminar. Labeled for foliar applications in brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting, leafy, legume, root, and tuberous and corm vegetables for control of aphids, leafhoppers, whitefly, and in some crops, Colorado potato beetle, squash bugs, and psyllids. Also labeled for soil applications in cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, and leafy vegetables for control of aphids, leafhoppers, and whitefly. (Group 4D, REI 4h)

Skyraider* (bifenthrin + imidacloprid): See Brigade and Admire for more information.

SluggoOG (iron phosphate): A snail and slug bait and molluscicide. Disrupts feeding immediately and produces mortality in 3-6 days. Registered for use as a soil treatment to be scattered on moist soil around the perimeter of fields or banded in rows. May also be used in and around greenhouses; scatter around perimeter of greenhouse, or in and around pots. Low-risk material exempt from tolerances on food commodities. (No resistance classification, REI 0h)

SluggoOG Plus (iron phosphate + spinosad): See Sluggo + Entrust for more information.

Sniper* (bifenthrin): See Brigade for more information.

Steed* (bifenthrin + zeta-cypermethrin): See Brigade and Mustang for more information.

Suffoil-XOG (mineral oil): A paraffinic oil insecticide, miticide and fungicide. Kills eggs, larvae and nymphs of insects and mites and adults of soft-bodied insects through suffocation. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a variety of crops to control a wide range of pests. Safe for use in greenhouses. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

SurroundOG (kaolin): A naturally-derived clay protectant and insect repellent. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a variety of crops to repel certain beetles, leafhoppers, thrips, and other pests. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

Swagger* (imidacloprid + binfenthrin): See Admire and Brigade for more information.

Talstar Nursery* (bifenthrin): For greenhouse herbs only. See Brigade for more information.

Talus (buprofezin): An insect growth regulator that disrupts insect cuticle formation during molting through contact, ingestion, and vapor activity. Suppresses oviposition of adults and reduces viability of eggs. Mortality takes 3-7 days.  Registered as a foliar spray on greenhouse tomatoes to control leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, and whiteflies. Long residual (up to 28 days). (Group 16, REI 12h)

Tempest* (bifenthrin + imidacloprid): See Brigade and Admire for more information.

Tersus (pyrethrins): See Pyganic for more information.

Thimet* (phorate): An organophosphate that is taken up by plant roots and acts systemically to target insect nerve and muscle tissue.  Registered as a soil treatment in beans, corn, and potatoes for control of a range of pests. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 1B, REI 48h)

Timectin* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information. 

Tombstone* (beta-cyfluthrin): See Baythroid for more information.

Torac (tolfenpyrad): A mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor that acts on contact. Registered for use as a foliar spray on leafy vegetables to control leafhoppers, aphids, flea beetle, and thrips.  Highly toxic to bees. (Group 21A insecticide, Group 39 fungicide, REI 12h)

Tracer (spinosad): For control of caterpillars, leafminers, thrips, and other pests on corn and soybeans only. See Entrust for more information.

Transform (sulfoxaflor): Sole member of a new resistance classification subgroup, active against sap-feeding pests. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on potatoes and root and tuber vegetables to control aphids, leafhoppers, potato psyllids and whitefly, and on succulent and dry beans to control aphids and plant bugs. Can be used as a rotational tool. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4C, REI 24h). Note: After being cancelled in 2015, sulfoxaflor registrations have been reinstated by the EPA under limited-use restrictions.

TriActOG (neem oil): For use on vegetable transplants. See Azatin for more information. 

TridentOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain SA-10): A bacterium-derived larvicide, labeled for control of Colorado potato beetle on potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplant. Must be ingested to be effective, so thorough plant coverage is essential. Most effective on young larvae in the first or second instar, or up to 1/4" in length. Apply as soon as eggs begin to hatch. After ingestion, larvae will stop feeding within a few hours and die within 2-4 days. Use of an adjuvant may improve efficacy, but avoid mixing with silicone-based surfactants. (Group 11, REI 4h) Note: Due to issues with formulation and shipping, Trident is not currently available.

Trigard (cyromazine): An insect growth regulator that acts by ingestion. Registered for use as a foliar spray on beans, brassicas, bulbs, cucurbits, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes for control of leafminers. Also labeled for Colorado potato beetle control in potatoes and suppression in tomatoes. (Group 17, REI 12h)

TrilogyOG (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil): A broad-spectrum miticide and fungicide, containing oil extracted from seeds of the neem tree. Mite control depends on direct contact and requires thorough coverage. Registered as a foliar spray on a variety of crops for a range of pests. (No resistance classification, REI 4h) 

VenerateOG (Heat-killed Burkholderia spp.): A biological insecticide containing killed cells and fermentation solids of Burkholderia spp. Works by contact and ingestion to disrupt insect exoskeletons and interfere with molting. Registered for use as a foliar spray on most vegetables to control foliar feeding and plant-sucking pests. (No resistance classification, REI 4h)

Venom (dinotefuran):  A neonicotinoid that targets insect nerve and muscle tissue. Acts by contact and ingestion. Becomes systemic when applied to soil, and has translaminar activity when applied to foliage. Registered for use as a foliar spray or soil treatment on cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, brassicas, leafy greens, and potatoes to control sucking and chewing insects. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 4A, REI 12h)

Verimark (cyantraniliprole): A systemic diamide that works by ingestion of treated plant material. Labeled for use in soil applications on brassicas, cucurbits, fruiting, leafy, and tuberous and corm vegetables to control sucking and chewing insects, including caterpillars, aphids, flea beetles, leafminers, thrips, and cabbage maggot. Also labeled for control of seedcorn maggot in cucurbits. May also be used as a potato seed piece treatment. Highly toxic to bees. (Group 28, REI 4h)

Versys (afidopyropen): Chordotonal organ modulator acts to stop feeding immediately. Labeled for use on brassica head and stem vegetables, leaf petiole vegetables, leafy vegetables, pome fruit, and stone fruit. (Group 9D, REI 12 h)

Vetica (flubendiamide + buprofezin): Note: All flubendiamide registrations were canceled by the EPA in 2016. Growers may use up existing stock. See Belt and Talus for more information.

Voliam Flexi (chlorantraniliprole + thiamethoxam): See Coragen and Actara for more information on active ingredients in this product.

Vydate* (oxamyl): A systemic carbamate insecticide and nematicide that is taken up by plant roots and acts on contact or by ingestion to target nerve and muscle tissue. Registered for use as a foliar spray or soil treatment on carrots, some cucurbits, eggplant, peppers, tomatoes, and sweet potatoes for control of nematodes and several insect pests. Labeled for control of brown marmorated stink bug in pepper and tomato. Highly toxic to bees, and extremely toxic to birds, fish, and mammals. (Group 1A, REI 48h)

Warrior* (lambda-cyhalothrin): A broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that targets nerve and muscle tissue. Registered for use as a foliar spray on brassicas, cucurbits, sweet corn, fruiting vegetables, legumes, lettuce, bulb onions, garlic, and tuberous and corm vegetables to control a range of pests. May be applied before, during, or after planting for cutworm control. Highly toxic to bees, and extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. (Group 3, REI 24h)

Wrangler (imidacloprid): See Admire for more information.

XenTariOG (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai): A derivative of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. Works via ingestion, stopping feeding within an hour and inducing mortality within 3 days. Registered for use in field or greenhouse as a foliar spray on most vegetables for the control of caterpillars. May be especially useful for control of diamondback moth larvae that are resistant to Bt kurstaki or other products. Toxic to green lacewing and predatory mite (Metaseiulus occidentalis) (Group 11, REI 4h)

Xpedient* (bifenthrin): See Capture for more information.

Zeal (etoxazole): A mite growth regulator that works as an ovicide and larvicide. Registered for use as a foliar spray on cucurbits, mint, eggplant, and peppers to control mites. (Group 10B, REI 12h)

Zoro* (abamectin): See Agri-Mek for more information.

Zylo (methoxyfenozide): See Intrepid for more information.

Zyrate (esfenvalerate): See Asana for more information.

Table 26: Information about Insecticides and Miticides

Pesticides listed in bold were used as examples; their labels and MSDS were consulted for the data given in this table. This information may vary slightly for the other products listed. No preference is indicated by this distinction.

All tolerances for chlorpyrifos in food crops were revoked in 2022, therefore products containing chlorpyrifos (e.g. Lorsban) cannot be applied to any food crop and growers CAN NOT use up existing stock.

The symbol * indicates a federally restricted use pesticide. Unmarked active ingredients may have state restrictions; always check a product's registration status in your state before using.

The symbol OG indicates a pesticide that has been listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production.

Mixtures are listed under all active ingredients and indicated with an (M). 

When tank mixing pesticides, mix in the proper order. The order is Wettable Powders (WP), Water Dispersible Granules (WDG), Flowables (F) (DF) (SC), Water-dispersible liquids (AS), Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC), and Solutions (S). Always follow the pesticide label when using adjuvants such as spreader stickers, surfactants, etc.

Active Ingredient

Trade Name and Formulations

Signal Word

Resistance Group (IRAC¹ code)

Dermal LD50

Oral LD50

Toxicity to bees

abamectin*

Abacus; Abamex; Agri-Mek SC; Athena (M); Clinch Ant Bait; Nufarm Abamectin 0.15EC; Reaper 0.15EC, ClearForm; Tide Timectin 0.15EC; Zoro Miticide/Insecticide

W

6

>2,000

310

H

acephate

Acephate 90 Prill, 90 WDG, 90 WSP; Acephate 97 UP; Orthene 97

C

1B

>2,000

688

H

acequinocyl

Kanemite 15SC; Shuttle O

C

20B

>2,000

>5,000

L

acetamiprid

Assail 30SG, 70WP

C

4A

>2,000

805

M

alpha-cypermethrin* Fastac EC D 3A >5,000 >210 - <1,050 H
afidopyropen Inscalis, Sefina, Versys C 9D >2,000 1,320-6,690 L

azadirachtin

Amazin Plus 1.2%MEOG; Aza-DirectOG; AzaGuardOG, Azatin OOG; XL; Azatrol ECOG; AzeraOG(M); Ecozin Plus 1.2%MEOG; Molt-XOG; Neemix 4.5OG, Ornazin 3%EC

C

un

>2,000

>5,000

L

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawi

XenTariOG

C

11

>2,000

>5,000

L

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. isrealensis

Gnatrol WDGOG

C

11

>5,000

>5,000

L

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki

CoStarOG; DeliverOG; Dipel ES, Dipel DFOG; Javelin WGOG

C

11

>2,020

>5,000

L

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain SA-10 TridentOG (currently off the market due to formulation and shipping issues) C N/A -- -- M

Beauveria bassiana

Botanigard ES, 22WP; Mycotrol ESO

C

M

--

--

L

beta-cyfluthrin*

Aztec 2.1G (M), 4.67G (M); Baythroid XL; Defcon 2.1G (M); Leverage 360 (M); Tombstone, Helios

W

3

>2,000

647

H

bifenazate

Acramite 50WS; Floramite SC

C

un

>5,000

>5,000

M

bifenthrin*

Athena (M); Bifenture EC, 10DF; Brigade 2EC, WSB; Brigadier (M); Capture LFR; Discipline 2EC; Empower 2 (M); Fanfare ES; Hero (M), EW (M); Match-Up (M); Skyraider (M); Sniper, Helios, LFR; Steed (M); Swagger (M, EPA rated D); Talstar Nursery; Tempest (M); Xpedient Plus

W

3A

nil

262

H

buprofezin

Talus 70DF; Vetica (M)

C

16

>2,000

>5,000

L

Burkholderia spp. (heat killed) Strain A396 and spent fermentation media Venerate XCOG C N/A >5,050 >5,000 M

capsicum oleoresin extract

Captiva (M)

C

N/A

>2,000

>5,000

L

carbaryl

Carbaryl 4L; Sevin XLR Plus, 4F

C

1A

>4,000

699

H

Chenopodium ambrosioides extract

Requiem EC

C

--

>2,020

>5,000

L

chlorantraniliprole

Besiege* (M); Coragen, Durivo (M); Voliam Flexi (M)

C

28

>5,000

>5,000

L

chlorfenaspyr

Pylon Miticide

C

13

>2,000

560

M

Chromobacterium subtsugae

GrandevoOG

C

--

>5,000

>5,000

M

cinnamon oil

Ecotrol G2OG (M)

C

N/A

--

--

L

Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil

Triact 70OG; TrilogyOG

C

--

>2,000

>5,000

M

clothianidin

Belay, 50WDG

C

4A

>5,000

>3,900

H

clove oil

Ecotrol G2OG (M)

C

N/A

--

--

L

cryolite

Prokil Cryolite 96

C

un

--

--

L

cyantraniliprole

Exirel; Verimark

C

28

>5,000

>5,000

H

cyclaniliprole Harvanta C 28 >2,000 >2,000 H

cyflumetofen

Nealta Miticide

C

25

>5,000

>2,000

L

cyromazine

Trigard

C

17

>2,010

4,460

L

deltamethrin*

Delta Gold

D

3A

>2,000

42.9

H

diazinon*

Diazinon AG500, 50W, AG600 WBC

C

1B

>2,000

787

H

diflubenzuron*

Dimilin 25W

C

15

>20,000

>10,000

L

dimethoate

Dimate 4EC; Dimethoate 4EC, 400

W

1B

1,000

60

H

dinotefuran

Safari 20SG; Scorpion 35SL; Venom

C

4A

>2,000

>2,000

H

emamectin benzoate*

Proclaim

C

6

>2,000

1,516

H

esfenvalerate*

Asana XL; Zyrate (M)

W

3

>2,000

458

H

ethoprop*

Mocap 15G, EC, 15G Lock n Load

D

1B

166

15.9

H

etoxazole

Zeal, WDG

C

10B

>5,000

>5,000

L

fenpropathrin*

Danitol 2.4EC

W

3

>500 - <5,000

>50 - <500

H

fenpyroximate

Akari 5SC; Portal XLO

W

21A

>2,000

810

L

fipronil*

Regent 4SC

W

2B

382

336

H

flonicamid

Beleaf 50SG

C

9C

>2,000

>2,000

L

flupyradifurone Sivanto 200SL C 4D >2,000 >2,000 L

gamma-cyhalothrin*

Bolton (M); Cobalt (M); Consero (M); Declare

C

3A

>5,000

>2,250

H

garlic oil

Captiva (M)

C

N/A

>2,000

>5,000

L

geraniol Ecotrol PlusOG (M) C N/A -- -- M

imidacloprid

Admire Pro; Advise Four; Alias 4F; AmTide Imidacloprid 2F, 4F; Brigadier (M); Couraze 2F, 4; Leverage 360 (M); Macho 2.0FL, 4.0FL; Mallet 75WSP; Marathon 1% Granular, 60WP, II; Midash Forte; Montana 2F, 4F; Nuprid 2SC, 4F Max; Pasada 1.6F; Skyraider* (M); Swagger* (M, EPA rated D); Tempest* (M); Wrangler

C

4A

>2,000

4,143

H

indoxacarb

Avaunt

C

22

>5,000

687

H

insecticidal soap

See potassium salts of fatty acids

 

 

 

 

 

iron phosphate

Sluggo: Slug and Snail BaitOG

C

N/A

>5,000

>5,000

L

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus)

PFR-97 20% WDGOG , PreferalOG

C

M

--

--

M

kaolin

Surround WPOG

C

N/A

--

>5,000

L

lambda-cyhalothrin*

Besiege (M); Cobalt Advanced (M); Endigo ZC (M); Grizzly Too; Lambda-cy EC; Lambda-T2; Silencer 1EC; Warrior II with Zeon

W

3A

>2,000

180

H

malathion

Fyfanon ULV AG; Malathion 57EC, 5, 5EC, 8F, 8 Aquamul

W

1B

>2,000

550

H

metaldehyde

Deadline M-Ps, Bullets, GTs

C

N/A

>5,050

>5,000

L

Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52

Met52 EC

C

N/A

>5,000

--

L

methomyl*

Lannate LV, SP; Nudrin LV, SP

D

1A

>2,000

49

H

methoxyfenozide

Intrepid 2F

C

18

>2,000

>5,000

L

Mineral (or paraffinic, or petroleum) oil

 

Damoil; Organic JMS Stylet OilOG, JMS Stylet Oil, Mite-E-Oil; Suffoil-XOG

C

M

>2,000

>5,000

L

neem oil

See clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil

 

 

 

 

 

novaluron

Rimon 0.83EC

W

15

>2,000

>5,000

L

oxamyl*

Vydate L, C-LV

D

1A

>5,000

9

H

peppermint oil

Ecotrol PlusOG (M)

C

N/A

--

--

M

permethrin*

Ambush 25W; Arctic 3.2EC; Permethrin 3.2AG; Perm-up 3.2EC; Pounce 25WP, 1.5G

C

3A

>2,000

1,100

H

phorate*

Thimet 20G Lock n Load, 20G Smartbox, 20G EZ Load

D

1B

86

5

M

phosmet

Imidan 70W

W

1B

>2,000

258

H

potassium salts of fatty acids

DES-XOG; M-PedeOG

W

M

--

--

L

pymetrozine

Fulfill

C

9B

>2,000

>5,000

L

pyrethrins

AzeraOG (M); Evergreen EC 60-6 (M); Pyganic EC1.4OG, Pyganic EC5.0IIOG; Pyrethrum TR (M); Pyronyl Crop Spray (M); Tersus

C

3A

>2,000

>2,000

M

pyriproxyfen

Distance IGR; Esteem 0.86EC; Knack IGR

C

7D

>2,000

3,773

L

rosemary oil

Ecotrol PlusOG (M)

C

N/A

--

--

M

sodium tetraborohydrate

Prev-AM Ultra

W

8D

>2,000

>5,000

L

soybean oil

Captiva (M); Golden Pest Spray OilOG

C

N/A

L

spinetoram

Radiant SC

C

5

>5,000

<5,000

M

spinosad

Blackhawk; Consero* (M); EntrustOG; Entrust SCOG; GF-120 NaturalyteOG; SeduceOG; Tracer

C

5

>5,000

>5,000

M

spiromesifen

Oberon 2SC, 4SC

C

23

--

>2,000

M

spirotetramat

Kontos Greenhouse and Nursery; Movento

C

23

--

>2,000

M

sulfoxaflor Closer; Transform D 4C >5,000 >2,000 H

sulfur

Bonide Garden Dust; Microfine sulfurOG; Microthiol DisperssOG

C

M2

2,000

>2,000

L

tebufenozide

Confirm 2F

C

18

>5,000

>5,000

L

tebupirimfos*

Aztec 2.1G (M), 4.67G (M); Defcon 2.1G (M)

W

3A, 1B

>2,000

132

L

tefluthrin*

Force CS, 3G, 3G Smartbox

W

3A

2,000 – 5,000

174

H

terbufos*

Counter 20G Smartbox

D

1B

71

8

M

thiamethoxam

Actara 25WDG; Cruiser 5FS, Maxx Potato (M), Vibrance Quattro (M); Durivo (M); Endigo* ZC (M); Platinum, 75SG; Voliam Flexi (M)

C

4A

>2,000

>5,000

H

thyme oil

Ecotrol G2OG (M)

C

N/A

--

--

L

tolfenpyrad

Torac

W

21A

>2,000

83

H

zeta-cypermethrin*

Hero (M), EW (M); Holster, Mustang, MAXX; Respect EC; Stallion (M); Steed (M)

W

3A

>2,000

234

H

1= Insecticide Resistance Action Committee