Insect Control

NOTES:  For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, days to harvest (dh), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 27 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.

The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.

The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

Aphids

Several species of aphids may probe, feed and cause direct damage or transmit disease in dry or snap beans: soybean, bean, pea, yellow clover, and green peach aphid. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) reproduces in soybeans but not green or dry beans; however, this species can colonize, inflict feeding injury and transmit virus to green and dry beans.  Soybean aphid is found on beans in New York and in the Midwest, with higher pressure in hot dry summers. It has been less important in New England but could increase, especially in soybean production areas. Virus diseases can be spread by aphids; however, using insecticides to control aphids is not effective for reducing these viruses. Generally, aphids in beans are controlled by natural enemies. Scout for aphids on undersides of leaves or terminal shoots. Treat only if aphids are well distributed throughout the field (50% or more of terminals with 5 or more aphids), natural enemies are lacking, and population is increasing. Use selective products for other pests to conserve natural enemies of aphids and to protect bees. Systemic insecticide may be used as seed treatment or at planting. Avoid planting beans near alfalfa or soybean.   See Peppers for more information about green peach aphid.

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A). Edible-podded and succulent shelled peas and beans only.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A (PHI 14dh dried, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed. Not labeled for control of Black Bean aphid.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 3.2 to 3.9 oz/A (PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21 d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake. (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group un).

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A (PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). Succulent beans only.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M).

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A (PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B).

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). For Pea aphid.

flonicamid (Beleaf): 2.8 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 12 h, Bee: L, Group 29).

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D).

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh; 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.2 oz/A foliar, 7 to 10.5 oz/A soil (PHI 7d foliar, 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A).

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (PFR-97 20% WDGOG): 1 to 2 lb/A foliar (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group M).

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior*II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A (PHI 1 d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A; 14 d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L). Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers (PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A).

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 100 oz/100 gal (REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25). Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

sulfoxaflor (Transform WG): 0.75 to 1 oz/A. (PHI 7d, REI 24h, Bees: H, Group 4C). Do not apply until after petal fall.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed (REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4). Systemic seed treatment. For early-season protection from aphids. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed.

Cutworms

Cutworm larvae may be dull gray, brown, or black and may be striped or spotted, depending on the species. Another distinguishing quality is their act of rolling into a tight C-shape if disturbed. The two major species are the variegated cutworm (Peridroma saucia), which feeds on lower leaves and petioles, and the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), which largely feeds at the soil surface and below on roots and lower stems. The black cutworm will occasionally feed on leaves. Both are nocturnal feeders and take refuge under soil clumps, stones, vegetation, and other places during the day. Cutworms find weedy or minimum-tillage fields especially attractive sites to lay their eggs. Seedlings are most affected; look for cut stems or foliage feeding. Scout across the field, as injury may be limited to a few small areas. Control is warranted if overall plant stand or survival is threatened.  Caterpillars hide under the soil surface adjacent to the plant stem during the day and feed on stems after dark. For best results, make application between midnight and dawn while cutworms are feeding aboveground. See cutworms in the Pepper and Tomato (Outdoor) sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A (PHI 14d dry 1 d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 1.3 to 3.8 oz/A (PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/a (PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). Succulent beans only.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 12 to 17 oz/A (PHI 14d, REI 12h, Bee:L, Groups 16 & 28).

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 1.5 qt/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A). Most effective on species which feed on upper portions of the plant.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 5 to 8 oz/A (PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A).

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/a (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). On snap beans, use only as a seedling spray. No restriction on dry beans.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.60 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

spinosad (SeduceOG): 20 to 44 lb/A or 0.5 to1 lb/1000 sq ft. (PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5). Spread bait on soil around plants.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 1.4 to 4.3 oz/A (1 dh fresh, 21 dh dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa zea), and Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusiani)

These caterpillars are occasional pests of bean in New England. See Sweet Corn for more details on European corn borer (ECB) and corn earworm (CEW), and Cabbage and Other Brassica Crops for more information on cabbage looper (CL). In beans, ECB eggs are laid under leaves and larvae feed in stems, then bore into pods. The bloom period is most attractive for egg-laying. If a preferred host such as corn is not available, eggs will be laid in beans. This may occur where early beans are planted after a corn crop the previous year, or where late beans are near a maturing corn crop when the second ECB generation emerges.  The most susceptible period in snap bean is from bud stage (about 26 days before harvest) to pod formation (12 days before harvest), and in dry bean is for the 4 weeks preceding the onset of pods drying. Infestation depends on synchrony of ECB flight and bean stage. The most effective timing for a single insecticide application is bloom or pod formation. CEW or CL may lay eggs in beans when migratory flights are very high. CEW or CL caterpillars feed on leaves, buds, flowers, and pods, often damaging the beans. CEW and CL feeding holes may be larger than ECB entry holes. The impact of these caterpillars on overall plant growth and yield is minimal, but the tolerance for caterpillar infestation is extremely low in processing beans where larval contamination must be avoided. The most practical and effective control for ECB is to avoid planting early beans where corn was grown the previous year or late beans near corn where ECB may emerge. Monitor moth activity in corn using pheromone traps or refer to pest alert networks to detect peak or high flights. Scout if flights are high during the susceptible period of bean growth, looking for wilted or chewed trifoliate leaves, larvae, or pod injury. There is no set threshold for treatment.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A for CL; 3/4 to 1 lb/A for ECB and CEW (PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A ECB and earworm, 3.2 to 3.9 looper (PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake. (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group un).

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11). Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel). Looper only.

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11). Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari). Looper only.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A (PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). Succulent beans only.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 12 to 17 oz/A (PHI 14d, REI 12h, Bee:L, Groups 16 & 28).

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1.5 qt/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A). High rate for ECB. Not for CL.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 5-7.5 oz/A soil at planting, 3.5-7.5 oz/A foliar (PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28). For ECB and CEW only.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A (PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A).

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M). Earworm and looper only.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A (PHI 3d fresh, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). Not for ECB on dry beans.  

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A (PHI 7d snap; 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A (PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 16 oz/A for ECB and CL, 10 to 16 oz/A for CEW (PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18). Use lower rates when plants are small or infestations are light.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers (PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A).

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 3 to 6 oz/A ECB, 4 to 6 oz/A CEW & looper (PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5).

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

Garden Springtails (Bourletiella hortensis)

Tiny (1/16") blue-grey insects that seem to hop like fleas. Important in the decomposition of dead plant matter. Occasionally, high populations feed on leaves of seedlings producing tiny pits in the leaf surfaces. Feeding resembles that of flea beetles. Plants may die of excessive water loss. Populations tend to be extreme in fields high in organic matter, with reduced-till systems, and with soils that crack when drying. Use clean cultivation and spot-treat areas where damage occurs. Most broad-spectrum insecticides registered for cutworms or leafhoppers will also control springtails.

ethoprop (Mocap* 15G): 13 to 20 lb/A for 36" row spacing or 0.9 to 1.4 lb/1,000 linear ft in a band 12 to 15" wide at planting (REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Incorporate in top 2" to 4" of soil. Do not use as seed furrow treatment. Treated beans may mature 1 to 2 weeks later. For snap and lima beans only. 

Japanese Beetles (Popillia japonica)

Beetles migrate from turf or pastures starting in July and skeletonize leaves.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (PFR-97 20% WDGOG): 1 to 2 lb/A (soil applications only) (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group M).

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers (PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A).

Mexican Bean Beetle (Epilachna varivestis)

Mexican bean beetle (MBB) most often builds up to damaging levels where snap beans are grown in the same or adjacent fields over successive years. Lima beans and dry beans are also susceptible, and MBB may feed in dry and edible-pod soybeans but are less likely to thrive on this host. Adults are copper-colored, oval, ladybeetles with black spots, 1/4" to 1/3" long. Eggs are orange to yellow in color, laid on the underside of leaves in clusters of 40 to 50.  Larvae are yellow with rows of branched, black-tipped spines. The pupa is attached to the leaf, lacks spines, and is yellow to yellow-orange. Adults spend the winter in hedgerows and move into fields in June. Adults and larvae skeletonize leaves and may cause pod damage if numbers are high.  There are 1 to 3 generations per year in New England, with newly emerging adults moving to the next succession planting of snap beans. A life cycle may be completed in 30 to 40 days during the summer. Populations are usually less abundant on early plantings and may not build to damaging levels until August. Prompt destruction of crop residue after harvest helps lower overwintering populations.  Avoid continuous production of beans in the same or adjacent fields year after year. Annual releases of the larval parasitoid Pediobius foveolatus, timed to coincide with egg hatch, can help control beetle larvae. The wasp will not survive our winters, so must be re-released each year, but reproduces and moves into later plantings. Parasitized larvae serve as pupal cases for the wasp, remaining on the leaf and turning brown. Scout for MBB by searching plants for adults, eggs and larvae, and assessing damage. Treat when defoliation exceeds 20% pre-bloom or 10% during pod development. The presence of adults, eggs and larvae indicates potential for further damage. Be sure to get coverage of the lower leaf surfaces. 

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A).

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A (PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A (PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake. (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un).

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1 qt/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 5 to 8 oz/A (PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A).

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A (PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B).

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 2.9 to 5.8 oz/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

kaolin (Surround WPOG): 25 to 50 lb/A or 0.25 to 0.5 lb/gal (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L). Suppression and repellence only.  Use on seedlings and young plants, prior to pod set to avoid unsightly residue. Generally compatible as a tank mix with other insecticides.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.60 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 12 to 48 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L). Apply as needed. For beetle larvae only.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers (PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A).

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed (REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4). Systemic seed treatment. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed. For early-season protection from Mexican bean beetles.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). 

Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae)

Adults are light yellow-green, 1/8" long, and wedge-shaped (wider at the head), while nymphs are bright green, flatter and wider than adults, and move sideways in a crab-like fashion. Adults lay eggs in stems and nymphs hatch and feed, passing through five instars before becoming adults. Presence of nymphs indicates an established population. Both adults and nymphs cause injury by injecting a toxin as they feed through piercing-sucking mouthparts. Potato leafhoppers (PLH) overwinter in Louisiana and vicinity and move north on storm fronts into the central states and then into New England on winds from the west. Arrival time varies with year and location, ranging from late May to late June. Low levels of leafhopper feeding can severely damage plants, especially at the seedling stage. Signs of injury begin with leaf veins turning pale, followed by yellowing or browning of areas of the leaf or leaf tips, which is known as ‘hopperburn’. Leaves become brown, curl up, and die. Plants and roots may be stunted and yields reduced or lost. This process may take less than a week. PLH may also vector many viruses. Scout using sweep net or observing adults flying up when plants are shaken. Nymphs can be counted on undersides of leaves. Seedling beans should be treated if they have 2 adults per foot of row. From 3rd trifoliate leaf to bud stage, treat when PLH exceed 1 nymph/leaflet or 5 adults per foot of row, and repeat application in 7 to 10 days, if necessary. Be sure to treat lower leaf surfaces. In fields where a systemic seed treatment was used (e.g. Cruiser), foliar treatment should not be needed before bloom.

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A). Edible-podded and succulent shelled peas and beans only.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A (PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A (PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 1.6 to 6.4 oz/A (PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). Succulent beans only.

buprofezin & flubendiamide (Vetica): 14 to 17 oz/A (PHI 14d, REI 12h, Bee:L, Groups 16 & 28).

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 qt/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A (PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A).

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M).

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A (PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B).

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 2.9 to 9.6 oz/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D).

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.2 oz/A foliar, 7 to 10.5 oz/A soil (PHI 7d foliar, 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A).

kaolin (Surround WPOG): 25 to 50 lb/A or 0.25 to 0.5 lb/gal (PH 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L). Suppression and repellence only. Use on seedlings and young plants prior to pod set to avoid unsightly residue. Generally compatible as a tank mix with other insecticides.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 12 to 48 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

paraffinic oil (Organic JMS Stylet-OilOG): 0.75 to 1.5 gal/100 gal water (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L).

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L). Apply as needed.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers (PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A).

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed (REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4). Systemic seed treatment. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed. For early-season protection from leafhoppers.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

Seedcorn Maggot (Delia platura)

Seedcorn maggot larvae feed on the seeds and young seedlings of large-seeded crops such as corn, beans, and peas, as well as early seedlings of spinach, onions, brassicas, tomato, cucurbits, and other crops. They are the first maggot flies to become active in spring, about one to two weeks earlier than onion or cabbage maggot. The adults look like small, gray houseflies with a slightly hump-backed shape. The seedcorn maggot larva is yellow-white, up to 1/4" long, legless, and has a wedge-shaped head. Pupae are oblong, brown, and about 4to 5mm long. The seedcorn maggot fly overwinters in the pupal stage, in the soil where they fed in the fall. In early spring, the adults emerge and lay eggs on the soil surface.  Growing degree days, using a base temperature of 39°F (4°C), can be used to predict peak emergence of the first generation (360 F GDD or 200 C GDD).  Flies are attracted to volatiles released from freshly tilled soil, as well as to buried cover crop residues, rotting manure, compost, organic surface residues (as is found in reduced till), and organic amendments such as fish, soybean or cottonseed meal.  Previously injured or diseased plants may also attract egg-laying. The eggs hatch within 2 to 4 days at soil temperatures of 60°F, and 7 to 9 days at 41-45°F. Larvae burrow downward in search of food and penetrate seeds as the seed coat splits open.  Though there are 2 to 4 generations per year, it is the first generation that causes the most damage. The first symptoms are usually poor emergence of seeds or wilting of transplants that have lost their roots to feeding. Look for maggots and feeding tunnels inside seeds or stems to help distinguish damage from that of wireworm feeding or damping off. Crops that are planted in wet soil, or soil that is too cool to support quick germination and seedling growth, are especially susceptible to damage. Wait until soil conditions favor crop emergence and growth to help seeds and seedlings avoid or quickly recover from injury. Plant shallowly to promote rapid emergence. Where possible, incorporate cover crops, manure or compost several weeks before seeding.  Put earliest plantings in lighter, well-drained, sandy soils that warm up fast. Among bean varieties, those with a dark seed coat sustain less injury than white varieties. Use row covers to exclude flies, except where flies may have fed in fall cover or vegetable crops and could emerge under the covers. Preventive chemical treatments include commercially applied systemic seed treatments and in-furrow applications of insecticides. Rescue treatments are not effective. If there is enough damage to warrant replanting, wait at least 5 days if maggots are a quarter inch long; if they are smaller than that, wait at least 10 days to make sure they have pupated and will not damage the new seeds.

chlorpyrifos (Lorsban* 4E): 2 pt/A in preplant broadcast application or 1.8 oz/1000 row feet at 30" row spacing (REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Preplant broadcast application incorporated into top 1" to 3" of soil or at plant T band application.

phorate (Thimet* 20-G): 4.5 to 7 oz/1000 ft of row (REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Apply granules in band over row and lightly incorporate. DO NOT place granules in direct contact with seed. Make sure granules are covered with soil. Do not feed treated crop residue to livestock.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb of seed (REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4). Systemic seed treatment.  Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage of seed. For early-season protection from seedcorn maggot.

Slugs

Damage appears as shredded foliage or fruit holes. Look for silvery slime trails on leaves or turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs during daylight hours. Grow plants away from moist, shaded habitats, use clean cultivation, control weeds, hand pick/crush slugs or scatter baits on the ground near infested plants. See the Cabbage section for more information on slugs.

iron phosphate (Sluggo: Slug and Snail BaitOG): 20 to 44 lb/A (PHI 0d, REI 0h, Bee: L, Group 9B). Apply around perimeter, scatter around base of plants, or band down rows. Apply to moist soil in the evening.

metaldehyde (Deadline Bullets): 20 to 40 lb/A (REI 12h, Bee: L). Soil surface treatment broadcast pre-planting, or band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Apply to moist soil in the evening. Do not apply directly to or contaminate edible portions of plants.

Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)

See Lettuce for information about tarnished plant bug.

acephate (Orthene 97): 0.5 to 1 lb/A (PHI 14d dry, 1d fresh lima, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B). Use on succulent green beans (snap) not permitted, except those grown for seed.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A (PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A (PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A). Succulent beans only.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 1.5 qt/A (PHI 3d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A (PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A).

Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (PFR-97 20% WDGOG): 1 to 2 lb/A foliar (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group M).

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A (PHI 7d fresh, 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A (PHI 1d fresh at up to 1.5 pt/A fresh, 3d for over 1.5 pt/A, 14d dry, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A).

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers (PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A).

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 50 oz/100 gal (REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25). Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

sulfoxaflor (Transform WG): 1.5 to 2.25 oz/A. (PHI 7d, REI 24h, Bees: H, Group 4C). Do not apply until after petal fall.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).

Two-spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)

Also known as Red Spider Mite. Outbreaks are favored by hot, dry weather and may be triggered by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides that kill the numerous natural enemies of mites. Spider mites affect dry, Lima and snap beans. Infestations begin on the lower portions of the plant and move upward. Watch for white speckling and bronzing on the upper surface of leaves (veins may remain green) and grayish webbing on the undersurface around leaf veins. Use a 10X hand lens to see mites. Avoid early-season, broad-spectrum insecticide applications for other pests; use selective products whenever possible. Registered products for mites on beans may not provide complete control of the pest. With most miticides, use 2 applications approximately 5 to 7 days apart, to help control immature mites that were in the egg stage and protected during the first application. Coverage of the lower surface of the leaves is important. If further applications are needed, switch to an alternate resistance group to help prevent or delay resistance.  For more information on TSSM management, see the Eggplant section.

abamectin (Agri-Mek SC): 1.75 to 3.5 oz/A. (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 6). Must be mixed with a non-ionic activator type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating spray adjuvant. Do not use binder or sticker type adjuvant.

acequinocyl (Kanemite 15SC): 31 fl oz/A (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 20B). Succulent shelled bean only.

bifenazate (Acramite 50WS): 1 to 1.5 lbs/A (PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group un).

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 8 to 16 oz/A (PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B).

fenpyroximate (Portal XLO): 2 pt/A (PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 21A).

neem oil (TrilogyOG): 0.5 to 2% solution in 25 to 100 gal water/A (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 18). Avoid mid-day applications and ensure good coverage.

petroleum oil (Suffoil XOG): 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water (PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L). Apply as needed.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM Ultra): 50 oz/100 gal (REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25). Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

sulfur (Microthiol DisperssOG): 3 to 10 lb/A (REI 24h, Bee:L, No IRAC classification). Check for sulfur sensitivity prior to treating the whole field; some varieties may be injured by sulfur.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A (PHI 1d fresh, 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A).