NOTES: For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 26 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.
The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.
The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.
The symbol OG indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.
Cabbage Looper, Imported Cabbageworm and Other Caterpillars
For more information, see cabbage looper and imported cabbageworm in the Cabbage section. Parsley worm, the larva of the black swallowtail butterfly (Papilio polyxenes), may invade small plantings but are not abundant enough to reach pest status on larger plantings. Hand picking or selective insecticides provide control.
azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group UN. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake.
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 1.5 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).
beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid* XL): 1.6 to 2.4 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Parsley only.
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 2 qt/A; PHI 14d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. Not for cabbage looper.
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 3.5 to 5 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28. May be applied to soil at planting, through drip chemigation and as a foliar spray. For soil applications, must be applied uniformly in the root zone. On cilantro, foliar applications only.
Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group UN.
cyantraniliprole (Exirel): 10 to 17 oz/A loopers, 13.5 to 20.5 oz/A other caterpillars; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 28. Parsley only.
cyantraniliprole (Verimark): 6.75 to 13.5 oz/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28. For soil applications at planting. Parsley only.
cyclaniliprole (Harvanta): 10.9 to 16.4 fl oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: H, Group 28.
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim*): 3.2 to 4.8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 6. Cabbage looper only. Apply when larvae are first observed.
indoxacarb (Avaunt): 2.5 to 3.5 oz/A for CL, 3.5 to 6.0 oz/A for beet armyworm and corn earworm; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 22. For cabbage looper, beet armyworm and corn earworm only.
malathion (Malathion 57EC): 1 to 2 pt/A; PHI 7d, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. For imported cabbageworm and cabbage looper.
methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 10d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. Parsley only.
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use lower rates when plants are small or infestations are light.
permethrin (Pounce* 25WP): 3.2 to 12.8 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for imported cabbageworm. Parsley only.
pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.
sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 50 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils. Cabbage looper only.
spinetoram (Radiant SC): 5 to 10 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.
spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 1.5 to 8 oz/A parsley, 4 to 6 oz/A cilantro; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. See label for recommended rates for different caterpillar species.
tebufenozide (Confirm 2F): 6 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use low rate for early season applications to young, small plants. Use of an adjuvant is recommended. Parsley only.
tolfenpyrad (Torac): 21 oz/A; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 21A. Suppression of caterpillars only. Parsley only.
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 2.4 to 4.3 oz/A for ICW; 3.4 to 4.3 oz/A for CL; PHI 1d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.
Carrot Weevil (Listronotus oregonensis)
Carrot weevil females lay eggs near the base of plants that have 4 or more true leaves, and larvae tunnel into root systems. Aboveground foliage will appear severely chlorotic. Symptoms are easily confused with Pythium; to distinguish, dig up yellowing or wilting plants. Carrot weevil larvae will cause orange gouges near the crown. Alternatively, if the roots appear shortened with reddish to orangish root tips, Pythium is the likely pathogen. See Carrot and Parsnip section for more information.
Look for missing or cut off plants. When this occurs, cutworms can often be found in nearby soil under clods, debris, or rocks. See cutworms in the Pepper and Tomato (Outdoor) sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.
Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.)
Parasitized crops will appear less vigorous, stunted, or nutrient-deficiency in circular patterns in the field. If suspected, carefully dig up the plant and look for galls; if present, send to diagnostic lab for confirmation. If confirmed, rotate with non-hosts such as cereals. Soil solarization or field fumigation in the fall may help reduce nematode populations.