Insect Control

NOTES:  For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions. In many cases, there are other products available with the same AI. Please see Table 26 and Insecticides Alphabetical Listing by Trade Name for more information on these insecticides.

The designation (Bee: L, M, or H) indicates a bee toxicity rating of low, moderate, or high. See the Protecting Honeybees and Native Pollinators section for more details.

The symbol * indicates a product is a restricted use pesticide. See Pesticide Safety and Use for more details.

The symbol OG   indicates a product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production. See Organic Certification section for more details.

Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa zea) and Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Generally, these are late-season pests and are likely to only be a problem in fall peas. For more information, see Sweet Corn section.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 2.7 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, PHI 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (XenTariOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. For FAW only. Use alone to control light populations, or first and second instar larvae. Add a contact insecticide to control more mature FAW larvae and higher populations. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt kurstaki products (Dipel).

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel DFOG): 0.5 to 2 lb/APHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 11. Use alone to control light populations, or first and second instar larvae. Add a contact insecticide to control more mature FAW larvae and higher populations. Must be ingested; apply in evening or early morning, before larvae are actively feeding. Adherence and weather-fastness will improve with use of an approved spreader-sticker. Use high rate at cool temperatures. For resistance management, may be rotated with Bt aizawai products (XenTari).

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 0.5 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A. Use high rate for fall armyworm.

chlorantraniliprole (Coragen): 5-7.5 oz/A soil at planting, 3.5-7.5 oz/A foliar; PHI 1d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 28.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, PHI 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 1 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Not for armyworm on dry peas.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

indoxacarb (Avaunt): 3.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 22. Dry Southern peas only.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A. Use higher rates for large FAW larvae.

methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F): 4 to 16 oz/A for FAW, 10 to 16 oz/A for CEW; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 18. Use lower rates for FAW when plants are small or infestations are light. CEW suppression only.

spinetoram (Radiant SC): 4 to 8 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

spinosad (Entrust SCOG): 4 to 6 oz/A; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 3 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Cutworms

Caterpillars hide under the soil surface adjacent to the plant stem during the day and feed on stems after dark. For best results, make application between midnight and dawn while cutworms are feeding aboveground. Synthetic pyrethroids (Group 3A) may work best during cool spring weather. See cutworms in the Pepper and Tomato (Outdoor) sections for more information on the black and variegated cutworms.

alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac* EC): 1.3 to 3.8 oz/A; PHI 1d succulent shelled or edible-podded, PHI 21d dried, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus): 1 to 1.5 qt/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 5 to 8 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, PHI 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 5.8 to 9.6 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

fenpropathrin (Danitol* 2.4EC): 10.7 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 24, Bee: H, Group 3. Climbing cutworm only.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 0.77 to 1.28 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 0.96 to 1.6 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A. For variegated cutworm only.

spinosad (SeduceOG): 20 to 44 lb/A or 0.5 to1 lb/1000 sq ft.; PHI 3d, REI 4h, Bee: M, Group 5. Spread bait on soil around plants.

zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang*): 1.4 to 4.3 oz/A; PHI 1d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum)

The pea aphid is light green with unusually long legs and cornicles (tailpipe-like projections). It is the primary aphid that attacks peas, fava beans and lentils. This aphid overwinters as an egg on alfalfa, vetch, and clover and moves to peas in the spring. Live female nymphs are produced throughout most of the year. Females take 12 days to mature and produce up to 150 nymphs. There are from 13 to 20 generations per year. Populations tend to be lower after cold, snowless winters or springs with persistent wet weather. Infestations during the bloom and early pod stages will reduce yield and crop quality by removing plant sap, impairing pod appearance, reducing seed fill, impairing nitrogen fixation and by the presence of aphid honeydew. Start monitoring when plants begin to flower. Action thresholds include 1 to 2 aphids per leaf, 2 to 3 aphids per stem tip or 9 to 13 per sweep, if a sweep net is being used. Harvest or spray nearby alfalfa, vetch or clover before winged adults are formed in the spring. Varieties differ in their susceptibility to pea aphid damage. Plant varieties less prone to high infestations and damage. There are many natural enemies (lady beetles, lacewings, flower fly larvae, predatory midges, Braconid wasps) that help reduce aphid numbers. Fungi will control high aphid populations during warm, humid or wet weather. A single systemic insecticide application will control this pest.

acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG): 2.5 to 5.3 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 4A. Not for dry peas.

azadirachtin (Azatin OOG): 4 to 16 oz/A foliar or drench, 4 to 16 oz/100 gal in greenhouses. When using lower rates, combine with adjuvant for improved spray coverage and translaminar uptake; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group un.

bifenthrin (Brigade* 2EC): 2.1 to 6.4 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 14d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

chlorantraniliprole & lambda-cyhalothrin (Besiege*): 6 to 10 oz/A; PHI 7d edible-podded and succulent shelled, PHI 21d dried shelled, REI 24h, Bee: H, Groups 28 & 3A.

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 (GrandevoOG): 2 to 3 lb/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M.

dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC): 0.3 pt/A; PHI 0d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

esfenvalerate (Asana* XL): 2.9 to 5.8 oz/A; PHI 3d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

flupyradifurone (Sivanto): 7 to 10.5 oz/A; PHI 7d, REI 4h, Bee:L, Group 4D.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare*): 1.02 to 1.54 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh; PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

imidacloprid (Admire Pro): 1.2 oz/A foliar, 7 to 10.5 oz/A soil; PHI 7d foliar, PHI 21d soil, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A.

insecticidal soap (M-PedeOG): 1.25 to 2.5 oz/gal water; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: L. Spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. Repeated applications or the addition of another insecticide may be necessary.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior* II): 1.28 to 1.92 oz/A; PHI 7d fresh, PHI 21d dry, REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 3A.

malathion (Malathion 57 EC): 1.5 to 1.6 pt/A; PHI 3d, REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 1B.

methomyl (Lannate* LV): 1.5 to 3 pt/A; PHI 1d, REI 48h, Bee: H, Group 1A.

pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A.

sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate (Prev-AM): 100 oz/100 gal; REI 12h, Bee: L, Group 25. Do not apply in midday sun or mix with copper, sulfur or oils.

thiamethoxam (Cruiser 5FS): 1.28 oz/100 lb seed; REI 12h, Bee: H, Group 4A. Systemic seed treatment. Use standard slurry seed treatment equipment which provides uniform coverage. For early-season protection from aphids.

Seedcorn Maggot (Delia platura)

See seedcorn maggot in the Bean section for more information.

chlorpyrifos (Lorsban* 4E): 2 pt/A pre-plant, 1.8 oz/1000 row ft at-plant; REI 24h, Bee: H, Group 1B. Preplant broadcast application incorporated into top 1" to 3" of soil or at-plant T band application incorporated into 1/2 to 1" of soil.