Guidelines for Organic Fertility Management

A strong organic fertility program considers the interrelated factors of a given soil’s biological, physical and chemical characteristics to optimize and sustain crop production. Organic production emphasizes practices such as cover cropping, reduced tillage, and mulching to build soil fertility and to improve the physical and biological quality of soil. Bagged organic amendments also play an important role in organic production to supply essential plant nutrients to meet crop needs.

Organic matter management is the core of good soil fertility. Generous additions of organic materials, such as compost or green manures, are needed to feed soil microbes, which in turn leads to improved soil structure, aeration, and drainage. Improved water infiltration also indirectly supports healthy crops by promoting better root growth and helping plants access more nutrients and water. In addition, organic matter is the storehouse of nutrients in the soil. Many nutrients, especially N, P, S, Cu, and Zn, are mineralized and released when organic matter decomposes. 

Soil amendments used in organic cropping systems are typically complex, whole nutrient sources (e.g., compost, manure, seed meals and rock powders). Since many of these amendments provide multiple plant nutrients, it can become challenging to maintain nutrient balance over time. As a result, excessive levels of certain nutrients (especially phosphorus) may build up, especially when compost or manure based materials are repeatedly applied to meet crop nitrogen needs. Soil testing allows for monitoring these trends over time, enabling growers to adapt their nutrient management strategies to optimize yield, reduce costs of unnecessary nutrients, and minimize environmental impact. If a nutrient is rapidly accumulating, then adjustments should be made in the fertility program to provide only those nutrients needed. 

In general, the goal should be to maintain nutrient elements within the optimum range as reported on a soil test. When nutrient levels are within this range, the needs of most crops will be met. If levels are below optimum (very low or low), most crops will benefit by increasing levels to optimum. However, if levels are above optimum, there will be no additional benefit, and excess levels may reduce crop yield or quality, attract pests, and may cause environmental harm. This frequently occurs on organically managed fields where large amounts of manure or compost have been applied over the years. When a nutrient is above optimum it should not be included in any amendments applied until the excess is taken up by crops. See Soil Testing

Calculating nutrient contributions for organic materials can be difficult because nutrients are unevenly released during the growing season and may not match the timing of crop uptake needs. The rate of release is dependent on the type of organic material, and largely mediated by the C:N ratio of the material (lower C:N ratio = faster release rate). For example, compost, which primarily decomposes in the compost pile, is slower to release nutrients than manures (see Tables 10 and 10a below). The rate of release during the season is also dependent on soil moisture and temperature, both of which impact microbial activity. Cool, wet or dry soils typically slow decomposition and mineralization. In the late spring after the soil warms there is usually a flush of nutrients, and the rate of release commonly declines after that. When the release of nutrients is low, fertilizing with more available forms of nutrients may benefit crops. This is why crops may benefit if available forms of phosphorus and nitrogen are banded, or placed near the roots of crops early in the growing season. For example, use bone meal and a seed meal (like peanut or soybean) to provide some available P and N, respectively, or use a commercial organic fertilizer blend. See Tables 10 and 10a below for the nutrient content of several common amendments.

Nitrogen Anywhere from 10%-90% of the N contained in compost, manure, and plant and animal byproducts may become available to plants during the season following incorporation (Tables 7, 7a). OOn average, there is a release of about 10-20 lb N per acre for each 1% soil organic matter. These releases of N vary with drainage and other soil conditions, and may not be well timed to crop needs, especially for early, short season crops. Many annual crops need N most intensely about three to four weeks after transplanting, or just before the period of maximum growth. Therefore, sidedressing, or spreading a rapidly available source of N along the crop row so it will release nutrients at this time is most efficient. Examples of appropriate materials include feather meal, blood meal, seed meals, and dehydrated poultry litter. These materials are relatively expensive, so it is advisable to prioritize their use on high value crops. A PSNT collected at the right time can help estimate the most appropriate rate. See Nitrogen and Nitrogen Management under Plant Nutrients. 

Calcium is typically supplied in sufficient quantities by lime applied to manage soil acidity. When liming is not required and soil Ca tests below optimum, the best alternative source of Ca for organic producers is gypsum.

Magnesium is best applied as dolomitic lime, but when liming is not required, other Mg sources are Sul-Po-Mag or Epsom salts. Sul-Po-Mag is the better choice if potassium is also required. However, Epsom salts can be applied as a foliar spray to temporarily alleviate Mg deficiency. Dissolve 15 lb per 100 gal water and spray at weekly intervals.

Limestone is a widely used rock powder. It raises the soil pH and provides calcium (Ca) and varying amounts of magnesium (Mg). The appropriate rate of limestone should be determined by soil testing and adjusted based on the Calcium Carbonate Equivalence of the material. The selection of dolomitic or calcitic lime should be based on soil test levels of Ca and Mg. When Mg tests below optimum, dolomitic, or high-Mg limestone, should be used for liming. If Mg is optimum, a calcitic (low-Mg) lime may be used.

Phosphorus is low in many New England soils, and can limit crop growth, especially early in the season. Maintain a pH of 6-7 with limestone to maximize P2O5 availability. Compost and manures are an excellent source of readily available P2O5. Compost and manures tend to contain less P2O5 than N or K2O, but repeated applications of moderate rates will raise P levels substantially. Repeated use of these materials may result in excessive soil levels. Nutrient levels should be monitored with regular soil tests. If P levels are much above optimum, no amendments containing P should be applied (including compost), to reduce P levels over time.

Potassium is best applied at or near planting time because it is soluble and easily leached.  Sul-Po-Mag is the K fertilizer of choice when Mg is also needed. Potassium sulfate from natural sources is a better choice when K is needed but Mg is not.  Potassium is very slowly available over many years from granite dust and greensand, which may be applied at 3-5 tons to the acre to build up K reserves. Wood ashes contain soluble K, but must be used with caution because they can raise pH rapidly and can be caustic. The liming effect of ashes can be variable, though is often estimated as roughly half that of limestone. If large amounts are to be used, best practice is to have the material analyzed for both K content and Calcium Carbonate Equivalence (i.e., liming potential).

Micronutrients are generally sufficiently supplied to plants by regular additions of organic amendments. Wood ash is another excellent source of micronutrients. Some seaweed extracts may also supply micronutrients. In soils low in boron (B), especially sandy soils, remedial applications are widely recommended for crops that readily suffer from B deficiency, such as brassica crops. In this case, 1-2 lb per acre of B should be applied to the soil. It is difficult to apply such a small amount uniformly, but boron can be ordered either as part of a custom fertilizer blend. Alternatively, most boron products are soluble and, once dissolved, can be sprayed evenly over the soil. Several forms of B are OMRI listed, including Solubor, Fertibor and Biomin Boron. It is advisable to monitor B levels with soil tests and tissue tests (for perennial fruits). Excess levels of B are toxic to plants, and some crops, such as beans and peas, are quite sensitive to high boron levels (see Table 3).

Table 10: Typical Nutrient Values for Common Fertilizers Approved for Organic Production.

 

Total N (%)1

C/N ratio

Fraction of organic N made available first season2

P2O5 (%)

K2O (%)

Relative Availability3

Plant residues

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alfalfa meal

2-3

15-20

0.25-0.4

0.5

2.5

slow/med

Cottonseed meal

6

5

0.6-0.8

2

2

med/fast

Soybean meal

7

5

0.6-0.8

2

2

med/fast

Peanut meal

8

11

0.6-0.8

1

 

slow/med

Animal products

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dried blood

12

3

0.6-0.75

1

0.5

fast

Bone meal (steamed)

3

4

0.25-0.35

15

0

med

Bone char

0

-

-

15

0

med

Feather meal

13

4

0.6-0.8

0

0

med/fast

Fish emulsion

4

3

0.7- 0.9

2

0

fast

Fish meal

9-10

4

0.6-0.8

7

0

med/fast

Manure

 

 

       

Dairy, with bedding

1

18

0.3-0.5

0.5

1

med

Horse, with bedding

0.5

25

0.2-0.4

0.2

0.5

med

Broiler litter

3-4

15

0.4-0.6

3

3

med/fast

Layer manure

1-2

10

0.4-0.6

3

1.5

med/fast

Bat guano

6

2

0.6-0.8

9

2

fast

Compost (mature)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manure

1.5-2

15-25

0.1-0.15

2

1

very slow

Yard waste

0.5-1

20-25

0.1-0.2

1

1

slow
             

Table 10a: Typical nutrient values for common mineral materials approved for organic production.

 

Total N (%)

P2O5 (%)

K2O (%)

Ca (%)

Mg (%)

Relative Availability3

Potassium sulfate (sulfate of potash)

0

0

50

0

0

fast

Sul-Po-Mag (sulfate of potash-magnesium)

0

0

21

0

11

fast

Epsom salts

0

0

0

0

10

fast

Wood ash

0

1

10

25

2

med/fast

Gypsum

0

0

0

19-23

0

med

Dolomitic lime

0

0

0

20-30

10-12

med

Calcitic lime

0

0

0

40

<5

med

Colloidal rock phosphate

0

254

0

20

0

slow

Rock phosphate

0

20-324

0

25

0

very slow

Granite dust

0

0

3-54

2

1

very slow

Greensand

0

14

4-94

0

0

very slow

1 Nutrient concentration of organic materials is inherently variable. Estimated values are provided for reference only. It is best to have materials tested in order to determine appropriate application rates. 

2 Compost, bat guano, poultry litter, and animal manures also contain varying quantities of NH4, which is immediately plant available; however, NH4 is subject to volatilization losses if material is not immediately incorporated.

3 Relative nutrient availability of lime and rock powders varies with origin of material, soil pH, and for rock powders, depends largely on fineness of grind.

   4 These values represent total K2O and P2O5. Available K2O and P2O5 from these materials will be much lower.