Physical weed control refers to actions that remove or kill weed seedlings, aiming to reduce weed density and thus maximize crop yield and quality. In vegetable crops, this often includes hand weeding, which is effective but expensive. Hand weeding time/cost is dependent on weed density, so efforts to reduce the weed seedbank and increase the efficacy of weeding tools will often improve net returns. The availability and cost of labor are key considerations, although it is common to perform some hand weeding in almost all vegetable crops. When relying on hand labor, start weeding operations with wheel hoes that can cover a lot of area quickly no matter the weed density. Next move to long-handled hoes designed for weeding: notable favorites among veteran organic vegetable farmers include the Glaser stirrup hoe and the colinear hoe. Using tools to get as close to the crop row as possible will reduce the final hand weeding labor. When tools are used for weed removal, physical weed control is sometimes referred to as “mechanical weed control,” or simply “cultivation.”
Cultivation is an important component of weed control in vegetables, particularly when the use of herbicides and/or mulches is to be minimized or avoided. Efficacy and selectivity are important indicators of cultivation performance. Efficacy or “effectiveness,” refers to the proportion or percentage of weeds that are killed. A central problem with cultivation is that efficacy is low (60% is common) and highly variable (some places in the field may have 95% efficacy, while another may have only 5%). Herbicides, in contrast, have very high efficacy and very low variability. Selectivity refers to killing targeted weeds, but not the crop. Cultivation tools are not particularly sophisticated in their operation, rather, selectivity is generally based on a size differential between the crop and weed. A first principle of physical weed control is to establish and then maintain the crops’ size advantage.
Cultivation strategies should start with careful seedbed preparation. Flat, firm, residue-free soil surface conditions will allow weeding tools to consistently function throughout the field. A light-weight field cultivator or soil conditioner with a rolling basket is often a good choice. While large-seeded or transplanted crops do not require a perfect seedbed for planting and stand establishment, later cultivation operations will benefit from these early season efforts to prepare a nice seedbed.
Weeds are most effectively cultivated shortly after they germinate, and crops are most sensitive to weed pressure during their early stages of growth. Thus, cultivation is most critical early in the growing season.
Tools should be carefully adjusted, first in the shop, and then in the field after some testing. Row-crop tools should target the same number of rows that were planted, or a simple fraction of this. For example, if using a one-row seeder, plan to cultivate one row at a time. If planting two or four rows, use a two or four row cultivator. Hand planting with a push seeder is generally not going to be suitable for later tractor-mounted cultivation tools.
Tools should be adjusted to work as shallowly as possible to minimize movement of seeds in the seedbank and dormancy breaking. After carefully adjusting spacing, place a 3/4" thick board under the gauge wheel of parallel linkage units (depth-controlling units), and then drop tools to the floor and tighten. Mark lines on the shop floor indicating crop row spacing to allow precise adjustment relative to the row. Magnetic levels are handy to adjust top-linkage of three-point hitch tools, and a protractor can be used to check the angles of tools to either avoid soil movement or hill as desired.
Cultivation tools can be broadly grouped by the area of soil they disturb, with so-called “blind cultivation” working the entire tool width, and “row-crop cultivators” aiming to control weeds as close to the crop as possible.
Blind cultivation is performed after crops have been planted, over the top of them, so that both in-row and between-row areas are cultivated. To minimize crop damage, this should be done before the crop has emerged and/or once it is well rooted. Slightly deeper planting depths and slightly higher plant populations are recommended to compensate for some crop loss that may occur. Very tender crops such as leafy greens are not amenable to this technique, but a surprising array of crops are suitable for blind cultivation, including corn, cucurbits, beets, etc. depending on stage of growth and equipment used.
Tine harrows have multiple rows of flexible metal tines that cover the entire soil surface, wiggling slightly as they are pulled along, uprooting or dislodging very small weeds. They work best at relatively high speeds, and the wide span of the tool makes cultivation quick. They are rear-mounted and available in many widths. The tension on the tines can be adjusted on some units or by the pressure on the 3-point hitch on other units. Gauge wheels can be used to maintain uniform depth. Tine harrows work best in friable soils free of rocks, and when weather allows weeds to dry out on soil surface after uprooting.
Rotary Hoes have many narrowly spaced metal wheels each with about 16 curved teeth that work the surface of the soil. Used within the first few weeks of planting vigorous crops like corn or beans, they destroy weeds that have just germinated. Ground-driven, spring-loaded wheels do little damage to the crop and work well at high speeds on dry, rock-free soils with little residue. They are rear mounted, in many widths. The teeth, or spoons, lose their effectiveness if not sharp.
Between-row cultivation can be performed with varying degrees of aggressiveness, so that soil may or may not be pushed into the row to obtain some between-row weed control. Commonly used cultivation setups consist of a shank (either straight, C-, or S-shaped) attached to a toolbar, with a cultivating tool (shovel, sweep, knife, hilling disc, etc.) attached to the bottom. The more curve to the shank, the more it will vibrate and flex in the soil. Trip-shanks have a release mechanism that allows the shank to pop up when it hits a rock. Shanks can be arranged on multiple toolbars to offer complete coverage between multiple rows in beds. There are many kinds of tools that can be attached to the shanks, and these should be selected to disturb only as much soil as is needed to kill the weeds present. In general, one starts the season with smaller, shallower tools to kill small weeds when the crop is small; as the season goes on, if larger weeds are present, then more aggressive tools are needed. As the crop grows it is possible to more aggressively push soil into the row without causing damage. For example, shovels might be followed by sweeps and then hilling discs. Another strategy is to adjust the angle of cultivating tools such as hilling discs or rolling cultivators as the season goes on. Start by pulling soil away from the row when cultivating a young crop; that creates a small hill that can be pushed back into the row when the crop is a bit older to bury weeds.
In small and/or tender crops like leafy greens, shallow tools are needed that will not move soil into the row and cause damage. A side-knife (or beet-hoe) may be used to cultivate horizontally next to the crop, just below the surface.
Basket weeders are relatively high-speed, between-row cultivators good for control of small weeds in narrow rows when crop is small. The wire baskets work the soil surface and do not move soil into the row, but they don't work well in crusted or rocky soil. The front set of baskets are ground driven, and they turn the rear set of baskets a bit faster via a chain and gearing, causing scuffing of the soil. These are available in 2-6-row units that can be rear- or belly-mounted.
Finger weeders consist of steel cone wheels that are ground-driven by spike tines on the bottom, with rubber fingers on the perimeter. The rubber fingers work the soil just below the surface, uprooting small weeds located very close to the crop. Finger weeders work best for control of small weeds in dry, friable soil with few rocks or residues. Clay soils may stick to fingers.
Spring-hoe, torsion weeders, and spyder weeders are flexible blades and square metal stock that disturb soil around the base of plants, and ground-driven spyder wheels with staggered teeth in an uneven pattern that break clods and throws soil into row, or pull it away, depending on the angle. These can be toolbar-mounted, either under the belly or in the rear. They can be used together, separately, or in conjunction with other cultivators.
Rolling cultivators have gangs of soil-driven 'spider wheels' that mount independently on a toolbar. The angle that they work the soil, and thus their aggressiveness, is usually adjustable. The number of gangs grouped together determines cultivator width, and these are usually rear-mounted, but pairs of gangs may be belly mounted to work a row or two. Soil can be thrown into row to bury small weeds or to form hills, depending on angle of the gangs. This is a relatively heavy, aggressive tool.
Reigi weeders require a rear operator who steers a pair of rotating horizontal wheels in and out of the crop row. The wheels are turned by a PTO-driven belt, and they have stiff tines on them that root out weeds. The wheels come in several sizes useful for various row spacings, and the units come in 1- or 2-row models. These are very effective for killing weeds in and next to the row in widely spaced crops like pumpkins, first-year strawberries, or sweet corn with a lot of skips.
Flame weeders can be used to kill weeds before planting without causing soil disturbance that brings up new weed seeds, after the crop has been planted (but before it emerges), inter-row weeding, and for stale seed bed preparation. Flame weeding, also known as thermal weeding or flame cultivation, exposes plants to brief periods of high temperature that causes the water in the plant tissue to expand rapidly, rupturing plant cells and leading to tissue damage. Plants are not burned or incinerated, but "blanched". They will not show symptoms of injury for several hours after exposure. Some weeds, such as purslane, can tolerate high temperature, and grasses with their growing points below ground are not controlled by flaming. When weeds are moist from rain or dew, more heat (a slower tractor or walking speed) will be necessary.
Like with contact herbicides, flaming kills weeds without soil disturbance, it is ideal for stale seedbeds. Once broadleaf weeds reach the three-leaf stage, they should be flamed to prevent them from growing too large. For longer lasting weed control, apply the final flaming as late as possible prior to crop emergence after seeding or just prior to transplanting.
Hand-held propane torches are commonly used to flame single rows at a time, but multi-row bed-flamers and tractor-mounted flamer kits are also available. Larger units require greater attention to safety during construction and operation. Safety is a big issue with flaming. Consult with a gas professional if constructing your own flaming unit. Do not mount propane tanks intended for stationary use onto tractors. Flame against the breeze and avoid areas with dry residues or dry hedgerows. Liability concerns may hinder the use of flaming.