Table 21: Biorational and Selective Insecticides and Miticides

This table includes products that are registered as pesticides as well as some that are exempt from EPA registration.  Most have low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects. None are federally restricted-use products. Most have dermal and oral LD50 values over 2,000 mg/kg (see Table 27 and 28 for LD50 values for insecticides and fungicides). Selective insecticides have efficacy on specific insect groups, or a specific life stage, and are therefore safe for non-target beneficial insects.

Active Ingredients Trade Name Target Pests Comments
azadiractin Amazin Plus 1.2%MEOG; Aza-DirectOG; AzaGuardOG, Azatin OOG; XL; Azatrol ECOG; AzeraOG(M); Ecozin Plus 1.2%MEOG; Molt-XOG; Neemix 4.5OG, Ornazin 3%EC Aphids, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies, beetles, and other insects An insect growth regulator extracted from the seeds of the neem tree. works by contact or ingestion against immature stages, and has antifeedant properties.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai


Caterpillars, as listed for Bt kurstaki, as well as cross-striped cabbageworm, armyworms, cutworm

Use in rotation with Bt kurstaki products to prevent resistance. May be used in greenhouse or field.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Gnatrol WDGOG Fungus gnats For use in greenhouse.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki CoStarOG; DeliverOG; Dipel ES, Dipel DFOG; Javelin WGOG Many caterpillars, including cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, European corn borer, hornworm Must be ingested. Apply when caterpillars are actively feeding. Safe on beneficial insects. For some species, more effective on smaller larvae.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain SA-10 TridentOG Colorado potato beetle For use on potato, tomato, and eggplant. Must be ingested. (Trident currently unavailable due to formulation and shipping issues)

Talus 70DF

Leafhoppers, mealybugs, planthoppers, whiteflies Insect growth regulator.
Burkholderia spp. (heat-killed) Strain A396 and spent fermentation media Venerate XCOG, Majestene OG Caterpillars, cutworms, aphids, mites, thrips, whiteflies Works by contact and ingestion to disrupt insect exoskeletons and interfere with molting.
capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil Captiva Caterpillars, mites, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies Has antifeedant, anti-egg laying, and irritant activity, and weakens cuticles of immature stages of insect and mite pests.

Chenopodium ambrosioides extract


Aphids, whiteflies, thrips, leafminer, mites

Contact insecticide/acaricide. Can be applied for ovicidal control. Start when populations are at threshold. Compatible with beneficial insects.

chlorantraniliprole Coragen Caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, leafminers May be used as soil or transplant water treatment at planting, in drip or as foliar. Avoid run-off in surface waters. Non-toxic to bees.
Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 GrandevoOG Caterpillars, aphids, whiteflies, mites, leafhoppers, thrips A selective biological insecticide/miticide containing fermentation solids. Works as a stomach poison upon ingestion. No systemic activity. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds.
clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil Triact 70OG, TrilogyOG Primarily labeled for (but not limited to) mite control Can be used to control mites. For best results use when population levels are low to prevent build-up. Repeat applications are needed.

clove oil, thyme oil and cinnamon oil

Ecotrol G2OG

Root maggots, wireworm, cutworm, Symphylans

Soil-incorporated volatile plant oils on a corn cob carrier, applied before, during or after planting. Exempt from registration and reporting under Federal EPA standards. 

cryolite Prokil Cryolite 96 Colorado potato beetle (larvae only), cucumber beetle, flea beetle, cutworms, some caterpillars Stomach poison, must be ingested. Sodium aluminofluoride mineral, applied as spray or dust. Reapply to cover new growth. May cause extensive wear of nozzles.
cyromazine Trigard Leafminer, Colorado potato beetle An insect growth regulator.
diflubenzuron Dimilin Armyworms, pepper weevils A selective insect growth regulator that disrupts the molting process of insect larvae.
etoxazole Zeal Mites A mite growth regulator that works as an ovicide and larvicide.
flonicamid Beleaf Aphids, plant bugs, whiteflies A pyridinecarboxamide that works by contact and ingestion. Feeding stops rapidly and mortality will follow.
flubendiamide (Note: All flubendiamide registrations were canceled by the EPA in 2016. Growers may use up existing stock.) Belt SC  Caterpillars including armyworms, loopers, hornworm, corn earworm,  European corn borer A diamide, active by insect larval ingestion, leading to a rapid cessation of feeding followed by death. Labeled for use as a foliar spray on Brassicas and turnip greens, leafy vegetables, sweet corn, cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, and legumes to control caterpillars.
flupyradifurone Sivanto Aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies, Colorado potato beetles, squash bugs A broad-spectrum insecticide in a new class of chemistries, the Butenolides. Acropetally systemic, and translaminar. No toxicity to bees in lab tests.
insecticidal soap (Potassium salts of fatty acids) Des-XOG, M-PedeOG Aphids, leafminers, mites, thrips, whiteflies Works on contact. Can be phytotoxic to some crops, test on small plot. Avoid treatment when plants are stressed. May also harm some beneficials. Also active against powdery mildews.
iron phosphate Sluggo: Snail and Slug BaitOG Snails, slugs Bait which causes feeding to cease. Death occurs over 3-5 days. Exempt from tolerance and has a zero hour re-entry interval due to low toxicity to people and wildlife.
kaolin Surround WPOG Flea beetle, striped cucumber beetle, leafhopper, thrips Interferes with insects' ability to recognize their host; particles cling to cuticle. Plant leaves turn white but growth is not inhibited. Reapply after heavy rain. To avoid lumps in mixing, form a slurry, then dilute. Maintain agitation.
metaldehyde Deadline Bullets Slugs, snails A toxic bait. Not for direct application to or contamination of edible portions of the plant; to be applied as a band treatment between rows after formation of edible parts. Long-lasting; resistant to rain and watering.
methoxyfenozide Intrepid Many species of caterpillars Mimics molting hormone; causes premature molt and death.
novaluron Rimon Caterpillars, beetles, leafminers, squash bugs, thrips, whiteflies An insect growth regulator for use on immature stages.
petroleum oil (mineral, parrafinic oils) JMS Stylet Oil, Organic JMS Stylet OilOG, Suffoil XOG aphids, leafminers, beetle larvae, mites, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies A horticultural oil (80% petroleum oil) insecticide, miticide and fungicide. Kills eggs, larvae and nymphs of insects and mites and adults of soft-bodied insects through suffocation. Registered for use as a foliar spray on a variety of crops. Also labeled for certain diseases.
pymetrozine Fulfill Aphids Works by contact and ingestion, translaminar with long residual.
pyrethrin PyGanic EC5.0IIOG, PyGanic EC1.4OG Asparagus beetle, blister beetle, cucumber beetle, flea beetles, Mexican bean beetle, potato leafhopper, many caterpillars, aphids, stink bugs Botanical insecticide with broad-spectrum activity. Contact toxin with rapid knockdown but short period of activity (non-persistent). Highly toxic to fish. Derived from a chrysanthemum species cultivated in Africa. Some formulations are approved for organic crops.
pyriproxyfen Esteem, Distance IGR, Knack Thrips, whiteflies shoreflies, fungus gnats Label may include greenhouse or field use. An insect growth regulator that suppresses development of embryo within the egg, immature, and pupal stages of the insect. No activity against adult insects.

rosemary oil, peppermint oil, other essential plant oils

Ecotrol PlusOG

Aphids, beetles, bugs, early stages of caterpillars, leafminers, mites, thrips

Works on contact as an insecticide and miticide. Greenhouse and field use. Thorough coverage is needed. Exempt from registration under Federal EPA standards.

soybean oil

Golden Pest Spray OilOG, Captiva

Primarily soft-bodied insects A soybean-derived horticultural oil that works as a contact insecticide, as well as a feeding and oviposition deterrent. Exempt from registration under Federal EPA standards.



See spinosad, below.

A second-generation spinosyn, similar to spinosad, below.

spinosad Blackhawk, EntrustOG, Seduce Insect BaitOG, GF-120 NaturalyteOG Caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, asparagus beetle, flea beetle, leafminers, thrips. Baits labeled for cutworms, earwigs (Seduce) or fruit flies (GF-120) Acts both as a contact and stomach toxin. Derived from soil bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Non-disruptive to most predator insect species and some parasites. Rotate with other selective biorationals to prevent resistance. 
spiromesifen Oberon Whiteflies, nymphs & pupae, mites Contact insecticide and miticide.
sulfur Microthiol DisperssOG Mites Micronized wettable sulfur, also labeled as a fungicide.
tebufenozide Confirm Caterpillars Selective insect growth regulator.
The symbol OG indicates a pesticide that has been listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as compliant with the National Organic Standards and therefore approved for use in organic production.